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JUN241910 * t 

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Beard, * u ^ 

1934 ' ** of brotherhood 
A crusade ot 



Secretary George Whipple, D.D. 

(* JUN24 1910 i 
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Copyright, iqoq 
By Augustus F. Beard 



THE significant facts of the American 
Missionary Association history are scat- 
tered here and there in our American 
Missionary magazine through sixty volumes. I 
have quoted freely what has seemed to me to 
be useful for correct appreciation of passing 
events, and have endeavored to exclude all else. 
My purpose has been to entrench these facts 
in the reasons of the great movements for which 
they stand; to show something of the evolu- 
tionary processes by which they came to be, and 
to take on their distinctive characteristics. I 
have endeavored to keep close to the principles 
and policies which appear in our various records, 
and not to advance personal theories of my own. 
The concrete facts and figures which are 
repetitiously — and necessarily repetitiously — 
set forth in our magazine, The American Mis- 
sionary, from month to month through sixty 
years have seemed to me to be the less impor- 
tant part of the story. The passing years have 
brought many of the same experiences to view 


as they are in all normal and healthful life. One 
year is much like another when things go well. 
The thought of the builders and the influences 
of their thought, their faith and patience, their 
consecration to their convictions, and how all this 
has worked itself out with struggle and trial, 
through misapprehensions and oppositions, ap- 
pears to be the main thing to be remembered. 
The resolute men who organized and carried on 
the Association, who did the things which have 
been done, are the real history. 

As I have sought to recognize this, it has 
brought me to relate incidentally rather than 
formally the principles of the Association, its 
theories and methods of administration, edu- 
cation and evangelization, that they may vindi- 
cate themselves in the visible results which have 
been accomplished, e. g., in educational institu- 
tions and churches established and carried on, in 
the spirit in which the work has been done, and 
in the esteem and approbation of leading South- 
ern educators like Curry, Haygood, Galloway, 
and others, who have given the testimonies of 
personal knowledge. 

Finally, I have sought to give a brief and 
comprehensive statement of present conditions 
and the outlook of to-day. In this I have 
placed the stress — where I think it belongs — 



upon our great work and its challenging prob- 
lems during the four decades of our service 
among and for the negro people, without neg- 
lecting to present in their proper proportion and 
relation the other features of our endeavors. 

Before I began my researches I thought there 
would be more incident and story than I have 
been able to find. The early days were serious 
even to sadness, with work done under clouds, 
as in all initial reforms. The workers in the 
mission fields appear to have had little time or 
inclination except for the constant appeal and 
pressure in behalf of the work. They were too 
hard-pressed, too sensitive to the sorrows about 
them, and too earnest to see the humors of the 
situation. The later times, happier in a larger 
recognition, have yet been one constant struggle 
to keep up with the demands of the work on short 
allowances, and too strenuous and severe both 
in office and field for much romantic interest ; but 
the whole of it taken together is nevertheless a 
story of the " faith and patience which inherit 
the promises," and of God's gracious providences 
which it were not well to leave unrecorded. 

Augustus Field Beard. 



I. Conditions which Created the American Mis- 
sionary Association i 

II. Foreign Missions — In Africa 33 

III. Foreign Missions — In Various Places ... 49 

IV. Mission among the North American Indians . 63 
V. The Home Department — West and South . 95 

VI. "The Morning Cometh, and also the Night" 105 

VII. Schools Following the Armies 119 

VIII. Policy and Development 143 

IX. Significant Years 165 

X. Concentration 195 

XI. Welcome and Unwelcome 217 

XII. New Fields and Old 235 

XIII. Experience and Justification 249 

XIV. Survey and Outlook 271 

XV. In Northern Alaska, Porto Rico, Hawaii . . 295 

XVI. "The Just shall Live by Faith" 311 

Index -, 2 * 



Secretary George Whipple, D.D Frontispiece 

Rev. Josiah Brewer 40 

Rev. Dan B. Bradley, M.D., Missionary to Siam ... 56 

Normal Training School, Santee, Neb 72 

T. L. Riggs, LL.D 74 

A. L. Riggs, D.D 82 

J. A. R. Rogers, D.D 102 

General S. C. Armstrong at the age of thirty-three . . 126 

Hon. William Jackson 128 

Hon. Lawrence Brainard 132 

Edward N. Kirk, D.D 134 

Arthur Tappan 138 

First Buildings, Fisk University, 1866, former Military 

Barracks 152 

Erastus M. Cravath, D.D 154 

General Clinton B. Fisk 156 

Jubilee Hall, Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn. . . . 158 

Theological and Livingston Halls, Fisk University . . 160 

General O. O. Howard 172 

Foster Hall and De Forest Chapel, Talladega, Ala. . . 176 

Foster Hall and Campus, Talladega, Ala 178 

Chapel, Tougaloo University, Miss 1S6 

Beard Hall, Tougaloo University, Miss 186 

Straight University, New Orleans, La 194 




Allen Hall, Tillotson College, Austin, Texas . . . . 216 

Dodge Hall, Pleasant Hill Academy, Tenn 240 

Avery Normal Institute, Charleston, S. C 242 

Secretary James Powell, D.D 248 

Daniel Hand 258 

Secretary M. E. Strieby, D.D 268 

Girls' Dormitory, Piedmont College, Demorest, Ga. . . 274 

Beard Hall, Joseph K. Brick School, Enfield, N. C. . . 278 

Chapel, Joseph K. Brick School, Enfield, N. C. . . . 278 

Lincoln Academy, King's Mountain, N. C 280 

Joseph E. Roy, D.D 320 





Two germinant civilizations. — New England and Vir- 
ginia. — The introduction of slavery. — Its decrease in 
New England and increase in the South. — Its abolition 
in Vermont, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and New 
Jersey. — The conscience of both sections against it. — 
Testimony of Thomas Jefferson. — The action of the 
general government to prohibit slavery in the Northwest 
Territory and its failure. — Sentiments of Washington, 
Hamilton, Patrick Henry, Madison. — The invention of 
the cotton-gin and great increase of profits by slave labor. 

— Consequent efforts for the perpetuation of slavery. — 
Local antislavery societies formed. — Lundy and Garri- 
son : their methods. — Alliance of New England com- 
merce and Southern slavery. — Agitation in the North. 

— Experience of Prudence Crandall and others. — New 
National Antislavery Society formed and determination 
to hold fast to the churches. — The widening movement 
against slavery. — Silence of the churches and religious 
societies. — The African captives in 1839. — Trial and 
freedom. — Return to Africa. — The Mendi Mission. — 
Organization of the Association in 1846 as a national 
society. — Subsequent absorption of the local antislavery 



THE " irrepressible conflict " which called 
The American Missionary Association 
into life and work was an evolution the 
beginnings of which are traceable in the first 
settlements of the country. In these, above all 
other immigrations, two distinct types were de- 
veloped which greatly determined, not only their 
own future history, but also that of the nation. 
These were of the North and the South. Each 
section with its own heredity made its own en- 
vironment, and as each developed after its kind 
the original stamp was distinct and clear. The 
United Colonies of New England accentuated 
the motives and institutions of a pure democracy. 
The Virginia colonists lived on their own estates 
and maintained the life of the cavaliers. A 



rugged climate and a not too friendly soil called 
the New England settlers to severe personal labor 
in their conquest of the wilderness. The Vir- 
ginia colony under more congenial skies took on 
an aristocratic and easier form of social life. 
Each colony was strong enough to include in 
its distinctive characteristics other immigrations, 
but these two stand out in emphasis. 

These original differences were intensified by 
the introduction of slavery. The iniquity of 
human bondage was not realized in that day suf- 
ficiently to prevent its adoption North as well 
as South. That the Christian conscience of the 
New England colonies with their theories and 
modes of life should follow the example of the 
Virginia colony is not easy to explain. There 
was no demand for slaves in the Northern colo- 
nies, nor was slavery in harmony with their life 
and social conditions. That it had feeble hold 
and comparatively short existence in New Eng- 
land does not wash away the stain upon its his- 
tory. On the other hand, the social order of the 
South — its ideas of class privilege — the climate, 
and the agricultural industries, were such as to 
favor slavery, so that after one hundred and fifty 
years, the six hundred and seventy-five thousand 
slaves were chiefly in the South. This is not to 
assert that one section was more righteous in 



principle in this respect at this time than the 

But the social conscience both in the North 
and in the South had begun to awaken to the 
iniquity of the system. Oglethorpe, the founder 
of Georgia, in 1733 bore earnest testimony 
against it, declaring that " slavery is against the 
gospel as well as against the fundamental law 
of England." As trustee he refused to make a 
law permitting " such a horrid crime." He found, 
however, the greed of the people more alive than 
their consciences, and the founder of Georgia, 
discouraged, gave up the battle and returned to 

As time passed, the convictions of the thought- 
ful increased. On the 30th of October, 1774, 
twelve colonies, which met for relief from British 
oppression, feeling the incongruity of their com- 
plaints as contrasted with their conduct towards 
the oppressed at their own doors, passed unani- 
mously the following declarations, solemnly 
binding themselves and their constituents : " We 
will neither import nor purchase any slave im- 
ported after the first day of December next, after 
which time we will wholly discontinue the slave 
trade, and will neither be concerned in it our- 
selves nor will we hire vessels, nor sell our 
commodities or manufactures to those who are 


concerned in it." Agreeably to this all the colo- 
nies closed their ports against the foreign slave- 
trade, and abolished it before the date of the Con- 
stitution. Antislavery societies were formed in 
the Southern colonies and thousands of slaves 
were emancipated in Virginia alone. 

With the war for independent nationality came 
a new discussion of human rights. It was im- 
possible to hold the logic of the Declaration of 
Independence and fail to see that the institution 
of slavery was a gross contradiction of it, and 
a violation of the very fundamental claims of the 
colonies for their freedom from oppression. John 
Adams declared his abhorrence of the practise of 
slaveholding, and said that " every measure of 
prudence ought to be assumed for the eventual 
total extirpation of slavery from the United 
States." A society in favor of its abolition had 
Benjamin Franklin for president and Benjamin 
Rush for secretary. Similar associations were 
founded about the same time in different parts 
of the United States. The Northern states in 
quick succession abolished slavery: Vermont in 
1777, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts in 1780, 
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire 
in 1784, New York in 1799, and New Jersey in 
1804. Meanwhile the general government, by 
the ordinance of 1787, undertook to stop the 



future extension of slavery, prohibiting it in its 
whole Northwest Territory. 

Perhaps the strongest protests came from the 
South, where the evils of slavery were more 
manifest. The wisest political foresight of the 
South predicted the inevitable consequences of the 
wrong. Thomas Jefferson, in 1774, wrote, " The 
abolition of slavery is the great object of desire 
in the colonies." He presided at the Fairfax 
County convention in 1774, and took part in fram- 
ing the resolves then adopted which expressed 
" most earnest wishes to see an entire stop put 
to such a wicked, cruel, and unnatural trade." 
He could not have used stronger words when 
he said : — 

What an incomprehensible machine is man who can 
endure toil, famine, stripes, imprisonment, and death 
itself, in vindication of his own liberty, and the next 
moment be deaf to all those motives whose power sup- 
ported him through his trial, and afflict on his fellow 
men a bondage, one hour of which is fraught with 
more misery than ages of that which he rose in rebel- 
lion to oppose. . . . 

When the measure of their tears shall be full — 
when their groans shall have involved heaven itself 
in darkness, doubtless a God of justice will awaken 
to their distress, and by diffusing light and liberty 
among their oppressors, or at length by his exterminat- 
ing thunder, manifest his attention to the things of this 


world, and show that they are not left to the guidance 
of a blind fatality. 

In 1784 he reported in Congress an ordinance 
that provided for the prohibition of slavery after 
the year 1800 in all the Western country above 
the parallel of thirty-one degrees, north latitude. 
The proposed interdiction applied to what after- 
wards became the states of Alabama, Mississippi, 
Tennessee, and Kentucky as well as the North- 
west Territory. This was lost by a single vote. 
Jefferson, two years later, wrote : " The voice of 
a single individual would have prevented the 
abominable crime. Heaven will not always be 
silent : the friend to the rights of human nature 
will in the end prevail." Washington also voiced 
the feeling and the conscience of multitudes of 
Southern people when he repeatedly urged upon 
the legislature of his state the necessity of taking 
measures which would result in the gradual ex- 
tinction of slavery. Madison, Hamilton, and 
Patrick Henry all reprobated the system. There 
was no question with these leaders of opinion as 
to the wrong of slavery and the evils consequent 
upon it. Madison in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion earnestly opposed the section which delayed 
the prohibition of slave-trade until 1808. 

It was not merely that the profits of unrequited 
labor outweighed the consciences of those who 



wished to see slavery abolished, and who saw the 
wickedness of buying and selling men and women 
as cattle. The trend of Southern civilization, the 
aristocratic social state which in itself made for 
class privilege, and the feudal theories of life 
added strength to the commercial selfishness 
sufficient to resist the promptings of the Chris- 
tian conscience and the prophetic appeals of 

The invention of the cotton-gin in 1793, which 
fostered slave labor, found in the Southern theo- 
ries of civilization a good soil for the perpetua- 
tion of the system that Jefferson had charac- 
terized as " an abominable crime against human 
nature." History does not show many more 
striking expositions of the apostle's words to 
Timothy, " For the love of money is the root of 
all evil: which while some coveted after, they 
have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves 
through with many sorrows." What had prom- 
ised to be a general consent, that slavery was too 
evident a wrong to be tolerated, was followed — 
when it was found to enrich slaveholders — by 
a most servile acceptance of its continuance and 
even by determined efforts for its extension. 
Greed for the ungodly profits appealed not only 
to Southern planters; those engaged in North- 
ern commerce alike bandaged their ears and 



closed their eyes to what but a little time previous 
had been a confessed wickedness against hu- 
manity, to be forsaken as soon as possible. 

The moral and humane expectations of the 
Fathers were thus outweighed in the scales by 
slavery, and slave-breeding became " no evil, no 
scourge, but a great religious and moral bless- 
ing." Meanwhile, Southern assertion and North- 
ern acquiescence had forced into the Constitu- 
tion a toleration of the slave-trade until the year 
1808, and had increased the Southern vote by 
counting each slave as three-fifths of a voter. 
The slave was thus " three-fifths a man and two- 
fifths a chattel." This raised slavery to its throne, 
and gave it the practical control of the govern- 
ment. Thus entrenched it held the country firmly 
in hand. 

The first evidence of its political purpose and 
power — after thirty years when the attention 
of the country was upon other absorbing inter- 
ests — was in 1820, when the question came upon 
the admission of another slave state. Missouri 
and Maine were applying for statehood at the 
same time. The price for the admission of Maine 
was that of Missouri as a slave state. There 
were long debates in Congress, and slavery won, 
but with the proviso that it should never extend 
north of thirty-six thirty degrees. 



Out of this debate from this time onward a 
determined spirit of opposition to slavery arose 
in the North. It was too deep-seated to accept the 
current apologies for the wrong on the ground 
that the responsibility was upon the South alone, 
and that the North had no right to disturb what 
the Constitution of the United States accepted 
and was pledged to protect. 

The pioneer of this opposition was Benjamin 
Lundy, of Quaker origin, born in New Jersey 
in 1789. He removed when nineteen years of 
age to Virginia, where his attention was first 
directed to the subject of slavery. In 181 5 he 
originated in Virginia an antislavery associa- 
tion, called the " Union Humane Society." He 
also formed antislavery societies in North Caro- 
lina which together numbered three thousand 
members. In 1828, visiting the Eastern states, 
he made the acquaintance of Arthur and Lewis 
Tappan and other prominent antislavery men. 
Meeting William Lloyd Garrison in Boston, he 
found a coadjutor sympathetic in purpose, but, 
as it proved, not in methods. Lundy, who wrote 
and spoke " the truth in love," and with such a 
spirit that he was tolerated in the slave states, 
secured Garrison's cooperation in publishing in 
Baltimore his paper, The Genius of Universal 
Emancipation. While Lundy traveled and lec- 



tured, the Genius in the hands of Garrison at 
once took on his own attitude and methods of 
bitter denunciation, for which he was soon ar- 
rested and imprisoned. Arthur Tappan, a mer- 
chant of New York, while he did not approve 
of Garrison's methods, believed in his sincerity 
and his devotion to the oppressed, and paid the 
fine which released him. The Genius of Lundy 
was ruined by the methods of Garrison, who re- 
turned to Boston with his heart aflame, and at 
once started The Liberator, his partner, Isaac 
Knapp, and he being editors, workmen, composi- 
tors, pressmen, and all hands. In his salutatory 
Garrison wrote, " On the subject I do not wish 
to speak with moderation ; " and he never did. 
He would have served his cause better if he had. 
Garrison's contribution to antislavery was in the 
truth he uttered in spite of the bitterness of his 
temper. Lundy was wiser. As the opposition 
to slavery grew, the South and its Northern 
partizans made desperate efforts to prevent the 
expression of opinion respecting it, while the 
churches in the slave states " searched the Scrip- 
tures " to prove that human bondage was divinely 
appointed and was morally right. The churches 
in the North were mostly silent. They certainly 
regarded slavery as a great wrong and mourned 
its existence, but they felt estopped by the con- 



stitutional rights of independent states from doing 
more than wishing that it did not exist. To go 
beyond this was like meddling with the affairs 
of a foreign country. 

Not all in the North, however, went as far as 
this in their attitude toward slavery. The alli- 
ance of New England commerce with Southern 
slavery greed corrupted the conscience of North- 
ern society and succeeded in making the caste 
of color about as rigid and narrow in the North 
as Southern assertion could demand; this, too, 
in communities where it would be least expected, 
and which now regret that the unhappy facts 
of history cannot be expunged. There are liv- 
ing to-day those who remember an endeavor to 
establish a manual labor school in New Haven, 
Connecticut, for colored people, who were then 
excluded from other schools. The leading citi- 
zens of the city government rose together in their 
indignation and defeated it. There are those 
now living who can recall the time when the in- 
telligent state of Connecticut, after a full discus- 
sion, passed a law making it a crime to instruct 
any colored child from another state. 

It was in Canterbury, Connecticut, that Miss 
Prudence Crandall, who had a girl's boarding- 
school, received into it as a pupil a Christian 
young woman, a negro, who wished to be edu- 



cated sufficiently to teach children of her race. 
It was decided by the citizens that such a pro- 
cedure could not be countenanced in Canterbury. 
Miss Crandall pondered this injustice in her heart. 
Here was one of God's children for whom she 
believed Christ had lived and died, and who was 
his disciple, forbidden by the community to seek 
instruction in the one place where she could get 
it. Upon this, Miss Crandall resolved to open 
a school exclusively for colored girls, and this 
she did in the spring of 1833. How cruelly she 
was persecuted, how shamefully traduced, and 
how bravely and patiently she bore her trials are 
all in the story. As there was no law, however, 
to prevent her, personal and political influence 
persuaded the legislature of the state to pass the 
act above referred to, making it a personal of- 
fense punishable by fine and imprisonment for 
any one in the state to instruct colored children 
from another state. Miss Crandall knew that she 
was right, and four or five different trials were 
had in the courts, for her persistence in recog- 
nizing the " higher law." The first resulted in 
her committal to jail. In the last trial before the 
supreme court of errors she won. The law was 
pronounced unconstitutional, and the result was 
that Windham County, when it thought it all 
over, became the most antisla very county in the, 



state. New Haven also repented and brought 
forth fruit meet for repentance, as we shall ob- 
serve later on in these pages. 

In all this yielding to prejudice and unchris- 
tian caste, Connecticut was not a sinner greater 
than the other states. Wherever commerce 
touched the South, there the convictions of the 
North were silenced, and the entire North seems 
to have been inoculated with the virus of slavery. 
It was inevitable that this condition of things 
should result in the formation here and there 
of antislavery organizations. Naturally, those 
which were most radical and denunciatory re- 
ceived the first attention. With the wicked spirit 
of caste in the North, the growing assertiveness 
of the slave power, and its demands for North- 
ern silence and acquiescence, these organizations 
had sufficient fuel for their red-hot publications. 
There are always those who are susceptible to 
fiery appeals. 

Garrison, the chief of the denunciatory leaders, 
found a constituency, but his following was com- 
paratively small. Had his ideas and methods 
received universal adoption in the North, slavery 
would be in existence in the South to-day. 
Equally determined and greatly wiser were they 
who formed The American Antislavery Society, 
which held its first meeting in Philadelphia in 



December, 1833. Perhaps its most prominent 
members were the brothers, Arthur and Lewis 
Tappan, of New York, merchants of high stand- 
ing and men of well-balanced and admirable char- 
acter. We shall have more to say of these in later 
pages. The sixty-four who organized this society 
were almost all members of churches. Twenty- 
one were Congregationalists or Presbyterians, 
nineteen were Quakers, and one was Unitarian. 
Such names as Joshua Leavitt, Elizur Wright, 
John G. Whittier, and Samuel J. May, were on 
that notable roll. The constitution was carefully 
drawn to safeguard the society against the im- 
putation of unconstitutional or anarchic tenden- 
cies. It declared that the right to legislate for 
the abolition of slavery existed only in the legis- 
lature of each state, that the society would appeal 
to Congress to prohibit the interstate slave-trade 
and to abolish slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia, and that the society would not countenance 
the insurrection of slaves. It was declared that 
their principles led them " to reject, and to en- 
treat the oppressed to reject, the use of all carnal 
weapons for deliverance from bondage." Their 
measures, they said, would be " such only as the 
opposition of moral purity to moral corruption, 
the destruction of error by the potency of truth, 
and the abolition of slavery by the spirit of re- 



pentance." The society opposed the formation 
of a distinct antislavery political party, deeming 
it wiser to diffuse their principles among the 
members of all parties. These men were not in 
accord with the methods of Garrison, though he 
was present and wrote a declaration of principles 
which was adopted. But he and these men were 
wide apart except in a common hostility to slav- 
ery. He denounced the Constitution; they did 
not. He held that all human governments were 
sinful and to be ignored as resting on force, or to 
be submitted to passively without taking part; 
they held to the exact opposite. He declared the 
Union should be dissolved because it was a com- 
pact with slaveholders; they believed that the 
Union must and should be preserved. To him 
the churches " were cages of unclean birds and 
synagogues of Satan," but these men were mem- 
bers of churches. It was a matter of course, 
therefore, that there should be a division of anti- 
slavery forces, and it came to pass that the term 
" Abolitionist," which in the South was applied to 
all who wished to see slavery abolished, had quite 
a different signification in the North. The name 
" Abolitionist " did not usually signify those who 
were opposed to slavery, but who held that op- 
position along with other political tenets and not 
as a supreme article of faith. These were best 



included under the general term of " antislavery 
men." The vituperative methods of Garrison and 
those who hated iniquity after his fashion did 
not appeal to those who, equally disinterested, 
equally determined and earnest, were well bal- 
anced, broader and wiser. No less radical in 
their views as to the iniquity of human bondage, 
they realized the complexity of the problem, the 
absolute necessity of patience in reforms, and the 
faith that can wait upon the developments of 
time. That slavery was a system opposed to 
Christianity did not contain all the terms of the 

The fact that so many of the churches were 
oblivious to the great evil did not lead these 
people to cut loose from the churches. They re- 
mained true to them even when they clearly saw 
that they failed to recognize all that duty de- 
manded. They believed they could do more 
toward correcting opinion within than by stand- 
ing without and screaming against those who did 
not agree with them; by working with such 
political alliances as could further in some de- 
gree their convictions rather than by refusing 
to have anything to do with any of them because 
they failed to compass the entire obligation. To 
swell the current of true public opinion by direct- 
ing what streams of influence they could, was 



better than standing upon the bank and criticiz- 
ing the sluggishness of the movement and the 
crookedness of the channel. 

In 1835 this American Antislavery Society 
had two hundred and twenty-five auxiliary so- 
cieties. A year later these had increased in 
number to five hundred and twenty-seven, and 
in 1837 there were twelve hundred with about 
one hundred and twenty-five thousand members. 
At the seventh annual meeting of this Anti- 
slavery Society, May, 1840, the expected divi- 
sion of the body took place, and a new national 
society was formed named " The American and 
Foreign Antislavery Society." Arthur Tappan, 
after he had declined a reelection as head of the 
old society, was chosen president. 

A large executive committee of leaders was 
appointed who realized that the methods of Gar- 
rison and his followers were impossible. They 
repudiated a hostile attitude toward the churches 
and unsound positions respecting the Constitution 
and the government. This committee, consisting 
of the Tappan brothers, Mr. Birney, Mr. Stan- 
ton, William Jackson, John G. Whittier, Ger- 
rit Smith, Judge William Jay, Joshua Leavitt, 
W. H. Brisbane, Edward Beecher, and others, 
made no delay in placing their case before the 
country, giving the grounds of disagreement in 



the antislavery ranks and a statement of prin- 
ciples. The antislavery sentiment almost every- 
where turned to the organizations in accord with 
this new society. 

Thus the aggressive and ever-widening move- 
ment against slavery went steadily on through 
defamations, mobs, and outrages that were a 
scandal for a civilized country. In part by means 
of these the evolution went on. The kingdom 
of God comes, not only in spite of the conflicts 
of human will, but often by means of them. His- 
tory is full of movements which themselves were 
big with injustice, and from which painfully 
evolved the very arguments to overcome them 
and deliver the people from their evils. " Great 
destinies," says Emerson, " grow out of their im- 
pediments and draw might out of them." The 
progress of mankind has thus been through storm 
and against head winds. The course has sel- 
dom been a straight one, as men planned, but a 
crooked one, as men made it, like a ship beat- 
ing its way against hard and furious weather. 
Providence assuredly was not tarrying. The 
various antislavery societies here and there 
were printing their pamphlets, distributing their 
tracts, and making friends as well as enemies. 
The Rev. Dr. R. S. Storrs, while president of 
the American Board of Foreign Missions, thus 



reviewed the conditions of the country at this 
time : 

The authority of the slave-power seemed established 
at Washington, dominant over Congress, supreme in 
the courts : and no limit was apparent to political sagac- 
ity beyond which that power might not be pressed. . . . 

The churches at the South were practically unani- 
mous in the contention that slavery was right in itself, 
that it had ample Biblical warrant, in patriarchal ex- 
ample, and particularly in the direction of St. Paul 
that servants should obey their masters, and in his 
sending back to Philemon the escaped Onesimus. 
Whatever occasional injustice to individuals might 
occur under local slave laws they held that the sys- 
tem, as such, had these superlative sanctions, and ought 
to be maintained, while the abuses, wherever practi- 
cable, should be relieved or removed. This sentiment, 
of course, practically and profoundly affected churches 
at the North. The great Methodist Episcopal Church 
divided on the issue, with almost geographical exact- 
ness, and two General Conferences thereafter occupied 
the area previously for sixty years covered by one. 
Other communions in this part of the country, while 
not so distinctly rent asunder, were painfully divided 
by the impact of Southern feeling upon them. The 
Old-School Presbyterian Church was widely permeated 
by this feeling. The Episcopal Church, with noble 
individual exceptions, was apathetic on the subject. 
The Congregationalists, less closely connected with the 
South than either of the others, were distributed by 
the question, according to their Christian or ethical sym- 



pathies, in different directions. Distinguished presi- 
dents and professors in colleges and seminaries were 
sometimes open supporters of the system, or confess- 
edly tolerant of it, or, more frequently, they stood 
toward the whole momentous subject as dumb and 
cold as stone statues. Young men who should have 
known better seemed sometimes to take an eccentric 
pleasure in devising plausible arguments for the right 
of one man, under special circumstances, to own an- 
other. Prominent city pulpits were glad to present in 
persuasive forms what was distinctively styled " the 
South-side view " ; and ministers who resisted and an- 
tagonized such tendencies were apt to be regarded as 
presumptuous radicals. The influence affected great 
religious institutions. The American Tract Society, 
which issued profuse tracts against dancing, novel- 
reading, and similar iniquities, was utterly dumb before 
this colossal national wickedness, and even the really 
infernal laws which authorized the master to separate 
wives from their husbands, children from parents, and 
sell either or all in public markets, failed to stir its 
torpid types. The society must live long to outlast 
the memory of that disgraceful and damaging silence. 
The American Sunday School Union was in like man- 
ner practically fettered and stifled ; and repeated efforts 
to induce the American Board of Foreign Missions to 
take decisive antislavery ground, while carrying on 
its work among Cherokees and Choctaws and other 
slaveholding peoples, wholly failed of success, out of 
which failure came, however, The American Missionary 
Association, since so justly honored and so widely and 
nobly useful. 



But the spirit which disputed and strove to arrest 
such tendencies at the North was not dead, nor even 
sleeping. For the most part, certainly, the Congrega- 
tional ministers of New England, especially through- 
out the rural districts, were intelligently and consist- 
ently hostile to slavery, and were ready to take their 
respective shares of service and sacrifice on behalf of 
their convictions. The same was widely true of other 
than the Old-School ministers in the Middle States, 
and yet more widely of those at the West ; while the 
general ethical sense of our Northern communities was 
being impressed and sharply stirred, not so much by 
what might be said in pulpit or on platform, as through 
what passed from one to another in neighborly con- 
versation and fireside talk. It was a matter of common 
observation that laymen were often in advance of those 
who should have been their moral leaders, on the ques- 
tion of slavery ; and that, while the special antislavery 
papers had limited circulation, there was a constantly 
rising ground-swell of resistance to the ideas under- 
lying the system, among all classes not personally or 
financially allied with it. 

In this evolution one of the providences which 
led directly to the organization of The American 
Missionary Association was an event which ex- 
cited the attention of the nation. 

In the spring of 1839 a number of Africans 
near the West coast were kidnapped by some of 
their own countrymen who acted as agents of 
Spanish slave-traders, placed on board a Portu- 



guese slaver, which took them to Havana, where 
they were sold to two Cubans, the largest pur- 
chaser taking forty-nine of them for $450 each. 
A little schooner of about sixty tons was char- 
tered to take them to Guana j a, another Cuban 
port. They had been brought over in irons, but 
it was thought to be unnecessary to chain them 
down on this short coasting voyage. One of 
them asked the cook where they were being 
taken, and was told that they were going to be 
killed and eaten. This cruel jest was taken for 
literal fact, and since they were to be killed, it 
seemed to them that it could be no worse if they 
were killed in making a strike for their liberty. 
Their chief was a tall, stalwart African with a 
bold spirit. During the second night and under 
his lead they rose against their captors. The 
captain of the schooner was killed by this chief, 
as was the cook whose ill-timed pleasantry roused 
the captives. The cabin-boy, Antonio, a mulatto 
slave of the captain, and Ruiz, one of the slaves' 
purchasers, were secured and bound. The other 
purchaser, Montez, was severely wounded. The 
crew took to one of the vessel's boats and escaped. 
It was the design of the captives now to attempt the 
voyage back to Africa, of which they knew only 
that it was " three moons distant and eastward." 
By threats and signs they made Ruiz and Montez 



take the wheel by turns and steer toward the 
east, but every night as soon as the sun had 
gone those at the helm would bring the schooner 
gradually about and head for the north. They 
were two months zigzagging in this way, when 
on Sunday, August 25, they cast anchor on what 
proved to be the northern coast of Long Island, 
not far from Montauk Point. A party of them 
on a tour of discovery came ashore, their only 
clothing being a handkerchief twisted around 
their loins ; those not having this protection wore 
blankets thrown over their shoulders. They went 
to the neighboring houses for food and water, 
and had Spanish gold, which they took from the 
schooner for the purchase. On Monday, while 
they were upon the beach, a number of the 
neighboring inhabitants drove up to find out 
who these strange, costumeless creatures might 
be. One of them, " Banna/' who knew a few 
English words, tried to communicate with them. 
His first inquiry indicated what kind of influ- 
ence these negro people had received from visi- 
tors who had gone to their native land from 
civilized countries. It was, " Have you any 
rum?" at the same time exhibiting Spanish 
doubloons. It is a shame to record that they 
received a bottle of gin in exchange for some 
of their money. The chief who was on board 



of the schooner was now sent for, who immedi- 
ately asked through Banna if this country made 
slaves. The reply was, " No." " Are any Span- 
iards here? " " No." At this the chief whistled 
and the Africans sprang up shouting for joy. 
The white men, frightened, ran to their wagons 
for their guns, but the blacks showed them that 
there was no danger by presenting them with 
their own guns, of which they had two, and a 

On the afternoon of this day a coast survey 
brig, the Washington, came into this part of the 
Sound, and, attracted by the strange appearance 
of the schooner, which seemed to be in distress, 
sent a boat's crew to her assistance. They found 
the negroes on deck armed with cane-knives. 
The boarding officer, at the point of a pistol, sent 
them below, and the two Spaniards who had 
purchased these Africans for slaves were re- 
leased. The chief, upon this, sprang into the 
water and made for the shore. He was pur- 
sued, retaken and handcuffed. The Africans 
now numbered forty-four, three of whom were 
young girls. Ten had died on the night of the 
capture. The Washington took her prize across 
the Sound into the harbor of New London. The 
Africans were committed to jail in New Haven, 
charged with the crimes of murder and piracy, 



and the whole forty-four crowded into four apart- 
ments in New Haven County jail. " Here on the 
soil of a free state were a body of men in confine- 
ment on a charge of murder, because when kid- 
napped against law on a Spanish vessel, they 
had risked life for liberty." The slave power 
saw clearly what was involved in the issue and 
was excited. The government took the Southern 
view that the crime must be punished and res- 
toration be made to Spain, but these unfortunate 
people were not to go undefended. 

Rev. Simeon S. Jocelyn, subsequently a secre- 
tary of The American Missionary Association, 
Rev. Joshua Leavitt, and Lewis Tappan volun- 
teered to act as a committee in their behalf, to 
receive funds for their defense, and to provide 
them clothing and other necessities. They found 
a friend also in Professor Gibbs of the Yale 
Divinity School, who, having learned the sounds 
of some of their words, went to New York and 
about the shipping in the harbor until he found 
an African sailor-boy from Sierra Leone who 
recognized the words. He had some acquaint- 
ance with English, and accompanying Professor 
Gibbs to New Haven on September 9, the cap- 
tives were moved to tell their story and to com- 
municate freely. Professor Gibbs, with the in- 
terpreter's aid, set out to make a vocabulary of 



their language, which was that of the Mendi 
country, north of Liberia, and was soon able 
to converse with most of them. 

It was in September when the case went to 
court before Judge Thompson, whose decision 
was that " while slavery is not tolerated in Con- 
necticut, it does not follow that the right of these 
Spanish claimants cannot be investigated here in 
the proper court of the United States." The 
discharge of the Africans was therefore refused, 
but as Judge Thompson had decided that they 
had committed no crime against our laws, they 
were now given much more freedom, and on 
pleasant days were taken out on the New Haven 
green for exercise. Within the jail also they 
had much more freedom. 

The appeal was now to the District Court. 
Judge Judson, who presided, had been best 
known as having brought the criminal proceed- 
ings against Prudence Crandall for setting up 
a boarding-school at Canterbury, his own town, 
for colored girls. His decision, after a trial 
which lasted a week, was that the prisoners were 
free-born and only kidnapped into slavery, were 
free by the law of Spain itself, and that they 
should be delivered to the President of the United 
States to be by him transported back to Africa. 
The claimants of the Africans had one more 



chance. Appeal to the Supreme Court at Wash- 
ington could not be denied them. John Quincy 
Adams was added to the counsel in behalf of the 
negroes, and with Roger S. Baldwin the case 
went to the Supreme Court for decision. The 
hearing was reached in February, 1841, and in 
March the captives were declared " free to be 
dismissed from the custody of the court and go 
without delay." 

It had been a great battle. Adams had brought 
his learning and ability with supreme earnest- 
ness, Roger S. Baldwin had argued with resist- 
less power, but while the captives were free, 
" their freedom," as Baldwin said, " was a barren 
gift. . . . They were here separated from their 
homes by the distance of half the globe and in 
a state where they might be pitied but were not 
wanted." The united committee resolved not to 
relinquish their labors until the Africans had 
been safely restored to their native land. New 
appeals for subscriptions were made and the 
necessary funds were secured. In 1842 these 
people found themselves again in their own 
native country, accompanied by two Christian 

The first suggestion was that they should be 
sent back in this way under the auspices of The 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 



Missions, and the Amistad Committee offered 
what funds they had collected to the Board for 
this purpose, provided they would make it an 
antislavery mission. The Board declined the 
proposition, and the committee went forward on 
its own responsibility in establishing the " Mendi 
Mission," the first mission on the Dark Con- 
tinent, the funds for which were largely fur- 
nished by Arthur Tappan. 

This same year there was organized in Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, a society with the same aim 
as the Amistad Committee, viz., " to discounte- 
nance slavery, and especially by refusing to re- 
ceive the known fruits of unrequited labor." 
The Amistad Committee soon afterwards be- 
came merged in this, named The Union Mission- 
ary Society, and under its auspices the mission- 
aries directed the mission station at Kaw-Mendi, 
where a church was organized, a school estab- 
lished, and a decided influence exerted in that 
region against the slave-trade. 

In 1837 an independent mission had been 
undertaken among the emancipated people of 
Jamaica, which was intended to be self-support- 
ing. This, upon trial, was found to be imprac- 
ticable, and in 1844 a committee to provide for 
and direct this was organized under the name 
of a " Committee for West Indian Missions." 



Early in 1846 a call from Syracuse, New York, 
was issued for a convention of " friends of Bible 
Missions " to be held in Albany in September. 
Upon the call, the " friends of Bible Missions " 
assembled. In the call it was asserted that " The 
time has come when those who would sustain 
missions for the propagation of a pure and free 
Christianity should institute arrangements for 
gathering and sustaining churches in heathen 
lands, from which the sins of caste, polygamy, 
slaveholding, and the like shall be excluded. To 
bear such crimes in silence, not to say to direct 
practice or fellowship therein is enough to para- 
lyze the faith and hope of the church," etc. 

Two days were occupied in a free and har- 
monious discussion. At last, when it appeared 
that there was no other way to be free from the 
complications of slavery, those who could not 
sustain it and who could not keep silent, formed 
a constitution and elected officers. Hon. William 
Jackson, of Massachusetts, was elected President, 
George Whipple, of Ohio, Corresponding Secre- 
tary, and Lewis Tappan, Treasurer. 

Thus The American Missionary Association 
began its life. 

The executive committee were located in the 
city of New York. As the founders of this 
Association largely composed the local societies 



above mentioned, these soon merged themselves 
into the new association which should be na- 
tional and unify their work. Arthur Tappan, 
who was the chief mover in the Amistad Com- 
mittee, and its head, became chairman of the ex- 
ecutive committee of The American Missionary 

These societies having transferred their funds 
and missions, the Association vigorously entered 
upon its work of strengthening the missions al- 
ready begun, and establishing or accepting the 
care of others, — one missionary at the Sand- 
wich Islands, two in Siam, and a number among 
the colored refugees in Canada. " The Home 
Department " was conducted with a special view 
to the preaching of the gospel, " free from all 
complicity with slavery or caste." 

Two years later the " Western Evangelical 
Society," which had been formed in 1843 to 
prosecute missionary operations among the In- 
dian tribes of the West, likewise transferred its 
missions to The American Missionary Associa- 
ton and ceased to exist. 




The outlook of the new society. — Appeal of the ex- 
ecutive committee. — The coming of Secretary Whipple. 

— The Mendi Mission in the foreground. — An industrial 
school at Kaw-Mendi. — Views of Rev. Josiah Brewer, 
one of the founders of the Association and member of the 
executive committee. — Theory of self-sustaining mis- 
sions. — Rapid death-rate of white missionaries in Africa. 

— Three central stations, with schools and churches. — 
Generous gift of Rev. Charles Avery of Pittsburg for 
African Missions. — The increased death-rate of mis- 
sionaries. — Decision to send colored graduates of our 
higher institutions. — Unsuccessful experience. — Trans- 
fer of the Mendi Mission in 1882 to " The Society of 
United Brethren." 



IN this way faith had its vision and its call. 
People who believed in God looked out upon 
another people, children of a common Father, 
who were born under the skies of a common 
country in a land of churches and Bibles, and 
saw them, not only with no legal rights, but not 
even with the rights of their own persons — chat- 
tels under the laws — bought and sold as things, 
in sin and degradation and without hope in the 
world. Their faith saw more; it looked into the 
future. It saw this people free and walking as 
erect men; it saw them listening to a gospel 
whose saving grace should bring with it clean 
hands and a pure heart. Its vision took in men 
and women going, in self-sacrificing love, to in- 
terpret the love of God and the brotherhood of 
man to those who had been in darkness and in 
the shadow of death. Their faith did not know 
how this was to be, nor when it was to be. They 
had their vision, and they had their call. They 



could not be silenced because of the power which 
worked in them. 

It is God who causes the hearts of men to burn 
within them when they look with his look upon 
the sufferings which come through sin. When 
the ear of faith hears this call of God, then people 
find themselves confronted by problems which will 
no longer wait ; then come the tides in the affairs 
of men; then God's time and God's people find 
themselves face to face. So it was. To all ap- 
pearance, the way that The American Missionary 
Association had elected appeared most hopeless. 
Those who comprised it were few, and were 
not accounted wise. They were " fanatics " and 
" men of one idea." The sentiment of most of 
the churches and the strength and wealth of the 
nation were against them. The slave power was 
increasing. The annexation of Texas had opened 
a great field for it. This not only meant new 
votes in the Senate and in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, but several new states out of its im- 
mense territory. The question of slavery exten- 
sion had become more than ever insistent. The 
proslavery administration of James K. Polk was 
dominant, and political life was everywhere fever- 
ishly sensitive. 

This little society, with faith as its chief asset, 
set its face against this. In the first issue of its 



"Magazine" in October, 1846, the executive 
committee refers to the address of the conven- 
tion which organized the Association for a state- 
ment of its principles, and asks " the prayers of 
the friends of Bible Missions everywhere that 
they may always speak the truth in love." It 
closes its appeal for Christian sympathy and co- 
operation as follows : — 

The field is unrestricted. Beginning with our own 
highly favored and guilty country, the Association 
will, as it may be able, preach the gospel to the poor, 
assist feeble churches, sustain missionary operations 
amongst the free colored population, and preach de- 
liverance to the crushed and stricken slave. It will 
endeavor to strengthen and extend the interesting mis- 
sion to the Indians. The fugitive slaves in Canada 
present an important field of missionary effort. The 
West India Mission among the emancipated slaves of 
Jamaica has great and pressing wants. The Mendi 
Mission should be enlarged immediately, and many 
reasons induce the committee to turn their earliest 
attention to India and China. 

In the issue of December, 1846, we read: " The 
Executive Committee have the pleasure to an- 
nounce that the Rev. George Whipple, of Ohio, 
has been appointed Corresponding Secretary of 
The American Missionary Association, that he 
has accepted the appointment, and is now in the 
city entering upon the duties of the office. They 



bespeak for him the prayers of the members and 
friends of the Association and the friends of 

At once the Mendi Mission in Africa appears 
in the foreground of the Association's first work. 
Two missionaries had accompanied the return- 
ing captives to their African home when the As- 
sociation took charge. One had already died. 
Rev. R. Raymond and wife were now at Kaw- 
Mendi with an assistant native teacher who could 
speak English. A school had been immediately 
established — a manual labor school. This pio- 
neer missionary, in 1846, writes: "The school is 
continually increasing. It now numbers thirty- 
nine, six of whom are girls. Twelve of these are 
apprentices — ten to the carpenter's trade, one to 
the sawyer's and one to the blacksmith's. Part 
are in school all the time. Those who are in 
school in the morning are with the carpenters 
in the afternoon and vice versa. Each division 
of the school takes its turn in cooking. The girls 
assist in the cooking and in taking care of the 
house and are learning to sew. You can easily 
see that the object of all this is to teach them 
industry. My plan is to make this in the end 
a self-supporting mission." 

This was twenty-one years before the school 
at Talladega in Alabama was founded, where the 



industrial idea in the schools of the South had 
its first introduction. The missionary in Sierra 
Leone certainly had the gift of prophecy, but 
we shall be surprised as we follow the develop- 
ment of this African mission if we find that it 
ever became " self-supporting " ! 

In 1847 the Rev. Josiah Brewer, one of those 
who organized The American Missionary Asso- 
ciation at Albany, and who was upon its first 
executive board, a missionary who had returned 
from Turkey in Asia, — the honored father of 
the honored son whose learning serves his coun- 
try upon the bench of the United States Supreme 
Court, — writes to the editor of The Missionary 
as follows : — 

Manual labor missionaries are wanted among many 
unevangelized nations to make labor honorable. Slav- 
ery, we all know, tends to degrade labor. Barbarism 
turns it over in undue proportions upon females. I 
well remember before laboring in foreign lands, when 
spending a few weeks among the poor Indians on the 
Penobscot, an incident in point. Having provided my- 
self with several hoes, in the intervals of school I went 
out into the corn-fields and began to work. On see- 
ing this the Indian boys said in their broken English, 
" Schoolmaster no hoe ; woman he hoe." By perse- 
verance, however, before summer was past not a few 
of the boys got quite in the habit of helping their 
mothers in this work. 



Let it not be objected that such missionaries can- 
not be all the while engaged in public teaching ; neither 
was Paul. Missionaries of this class are needed on 
account of their knowledge of men and things and 
their experience in the common affairs of life. Mis- 
sionaries are required in all the varied departments 
of honest industry to perform the different kinds of 
mechanical labor and business on strictly Christian 
principles. ... I deem it one of the felicities of our 
new society that we shall not feel ourselves tied down 
in all things to precedents whose existence dates back 
little more than one generation. 

The forerunners, " not tied down to prece- 
dents," certainly did not get their ideas of in- 
dustrial training from those who introduced it 
twenty years later. It was good for Africa in 
1847, as ^ always is for the masses of peoples 
developed or undeveloped. Mr. Raymond's hope 
of " self-sustaining missions," however, never 
had large realization. The theory is right, but 
in practise " self-supporting missions " have usu- 
ally proved to be financially very expensive. 

Again in 1847 this earnest missionary, Ray- 
mond, in Africa, writes : " I have in every way 
encouraged industry and have set the example, 
working with my hands. I have commenced me- 
chanical and agricultural departments with my 
school. Every boy in this school large enough 
must work; whether he is the son of a king or 


Rev. Josiah Brewer 


a slave, it makes no difference. There are some 
who within a year have been sold like cattle, 
yet they are on the same footing with the sons 
of the king." 

When the first year of the Association closed, 
Mr. Raymond's manual labor school numbered 
one hundred pupils. The second Annual Report 
publishes " the most afflictive providence that has 
befallen the Mission in the death of its first mis- 
sionary to Africa." Mr. Raymond's work was 
one of heroic and incredible labor and remark- 
able accomplishment. The early progress of the 
Mission had been embarrassed by the outbreak- 
ing of a native war, yet during all this unpro- 
pitious period, the Mission school had greatly 
prospered, and its influence was felt far and 
wide. But by Mr. Raymond's death in 1847 the 
Mission lost its leading spirit, who had wisely 
shaped its early development. Thomas Bunyan, 
a converted native of Mendi, who had acted as 
interpreter and teacher, and who had become 
an efficient helper, was left in charge until re- 
enforcements arrived from the United States in 
the persons of Rev. George Thompson and Anson 
J. Carter, who reached Kaw-Mendi in July, 1848. 
Mr. Carter died eight days after he had arrived 
at the Mission. In November, 1849, Mr. Thomp- 
son was gladdened by the announcement of the 



coming to his aid of Mr. and Mrs. John S. Brooks 
with Miss Sara Kinson (Mar-Gru, one of the 
Amistad captives who had remained in this 
country for eight years and had been educated 
here), but Mrs. Brooks died in Sierra Leone of the 
African fever before reaching Kaw-Mendi station. 

At this time the mission church numbered forty 
members, and the missionaries reported great en- 
couragement in the signs of increasing religious 
interest. A whole village gave up idolatry and 
were ministered unto by three native missionaries 
sent to them. 

The war between the tribes, which had been 
raging for several years, was at last brought 
to a close through the persistent efforts of Mr. 
Thompson. He was chosen umpire by contend- 
ing chiefs, and after repeated and trying excur- 
sions to interview and influence the different 
parties, he at length succeeded. It was a grand 
achievement which made for the extension and 
success of the Mission. " Already," he wrote, 
" there is a desire for the gospel and for living 
teachers such as was never known in this coun- 
try." The rulers and the people met him, eager 
to hear him preach. Another of the Amistad cap- 
tives, Kinna, had become an earnest evangelist 
among his countrymen. In 1850 Mr. Thompson 
returned to the United States to recruit his health 



and to arouse the churches here to interest them- 
selves in African missions and also to secure re- 
enforcements for his field, Mr. Brooks being left 
in charge. 

In 185 1 eight missionaries arrived at Sierra 
Leone on their way to join the Mendi Mission, 
three of whom died of African fever in quick suc- 
cession soon after their arrival. 

The year 1851, which began with such bright 
hopes for the Mission, was darkly shadowed by 
these swift-following bereavements, but still the 
working force was larger than ever, and all the 
conditions seemed to facilitate the labors of the 
missionaries. The chiefs and their tribes were 
ready to hear the gospel; many gave up their 
idol-worship, and at the close of the year four- 
teen new members were added to the church. 

In 1853 seven new missionaries, five of them 
young women, joined the Mission. Everything 
promised well when war broke out again in the 
surrounding country. Mr. Brooks, as the head 
of the Mission, convinced that the planting of 
new mission stations would be the most effective 
method of securing and preserving peace among 
jealous chiefs, started two new missions, one 
quite a little distance in the interior, which he 
named " Mo-Tappan," and another on Sherbro 
Island called " Good Hope." 



It was another sad blow to this Mission when 
Rev. Mr. Condit, whose preaching had been at- 
tended with marked success, died in 1854. 

The church at Kaw-Mendi, the original mis- 
sion station, now numbered ninety-six members. 
In January, 1855, three more young Christian 
women from the United States joined the Mis- 
sion. There had been thus far established the 
three central stations — Kaw-Mendi, Mo-Tappan, 
and Good Hope — and several out-stations, where 
schools were kept by natives who had been pre- 
pared by the missionaries. But it had now 
become evident that Kaw-Mendi was so ex- 
tremely perilous to health as to make it a duty 
to distribute the missionaries among other and 
healthier stations. 

In 1856 Rev. Mr. Thompson, after eight years 
of most faithful service, retired from the field. 
This was a great loss to the missions. Three 
new missionaries were sent out in 1857, one of 
them dying at Freetown before he had arrived 
at his mission station. Eight others joined the 
missionary forces in 1858. The death in this 
year of Mrs. Brooks — a second wife — who was 
a most efficient worker and who had remarkable 
success in the management of her school, was 
another severe blow to the Mission. 

Mr. Jowett, a young native, and Mr. Johnson, 


another native somewhat advanced in years, were 
at this time ordained to preach the gospel, and 
at the beginning of 1859 four additional mis- 
sionaries with their wives, undismayed by the 
fact that each year was flecked with sorrow by 
the respective deaths of those who had devoted 
themselves to this work, gave new strength to 
the enterprise. Another promising young native 
also was licensed to preach by the " Mendi Asso- 
ciation." More than a thousand Mendi words 
had been collected, defined, and reduced to writ- 
ing. A primer had been compiled and was in 
process of printing. A translation of the Gospels 
had been begun. The work at the out-stations 

Avery Station, one hundred and twenty miles 
southeast on the Bargroo River, named in com- 
memoration of the generous endowment of this 
mission to the amount of $100,000 by Rev. 
Charles Avery of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, es- 
tablished in 1859, was particularly prosperous. 
Within four years, five missionaries had been 
added to the force to make good the vacancies 
occasioned by death or to take the places of those 
who felt compelled to retire. 

Thus the years went on. In 1874 Barnabas 
Root, a native of the Mendi country, was sent by 
the Mission to the United States to prepare for 



his work among his own people. Educated and 
graduated at Knox College and Chicago Theo- 
logical Seminary, he returned to his native land, 
having given promise here of a signally useful 
career. He began his work with enthusiasm and 
wisdom, but was soon stricken down by death. 

It is unutterably sad to think how many mis- 
sionaries fell before their work had fairly begun. 
The results so far as statistics may give them in 
this first field of the Association were about fifty 
missionaries heroically laboring with varying de- 
grees of success and for longer or shorter terms 
in five central stations with other points occu- 
pied as preaching stations. The churches organ- 
ized lived and grew, and the schools established 
taught successive generations of youth the ele- 
mentary studies and the duties of life. The first 
sawmill ever known in western Africa was in 
successful operation at Avery Station and had 
already paid for itself. It was regarded as a 
most useful adjunct of the Mission. 

The Association thus maintained the Mendi 
Mission for twenty-seven years. White mission- 
aries fearlessly followed each other with a rapid 
death-rate surely facing them and with many 
consequent changes and interruptions of prog- 
ress. That measureless holy influences were 
created and untold good was done is evident, 



but it was at the cost of many precious lives. In 
view of this, it was decided to make trial of the 
freedmen of America, educated and trained in the 
higher institutions of the Association, as mis- 
sionaries. They could stand the climate, and it 
seemed to be a fitting thing that they should 
teach their own race the way of life. Seventeen 
of these in the years 1877-8, thought to be quali- 
fied for this work, took the places of those who 
had recently withdrawn from the missions and 
who had left them greatly weakened. It was 
hoped that thus the Christianization of Africa 
by ministers of African descent might be so suc- 
cessful as to prove that a way had been found to 
carry on this missionary enterprise without the 
bitter experience of the loss of so many precious 

Owing to immaturity, both of experience and of 
judgment, the experiment was not satisfactory. 
The results proved it to be advisable for the As- 
sociation to return to its former methods. It was 
too soon — then, at least ; the children of the 
freedmen were not far enough removed from 
their antecedents. The last attainment in edu- 
cative development is a wise administrative abil- 
ity. Executive wisdom is the gift of long he- 
redity. It was too much to expect this fitness 
and power in young men not a score of years 



out of slavery. The enthusiasm of humanity with 
a controlling consecration and with wise admin- 
istration does not come at once to an undeveloped 
people. The experiment would be more hopeful 
now than it was twenty-five years ago. 

In 1882 the question of a transfer of the for- 
eign work of the Association in the interest of 
greater concentration upon the pressing prob- 
lems of the homeland was considered, and early 
in the next year the Mendi Mission with its five 
mission stations and their property, its mis- 
sionary steamer used for transportation, and its 
thirty-five years of history was transferred to the 
" United Brethren,'' who already had an adjoin- 
ing mission on the West coast. Since that time 
the African missions under the care of the United 
Brethren have been largely and successfully 




Sandwich Islands Mission. — West India Missions. — 
Siam Mission. — Rev. Dan Beach Bradley, m.d., Mission- 
ary intelligence. — Patriotism. — Mission closed in 1874. 
— Five years among the Copts in Egypt. — Mission 
among the refugees from slavery in Canada. 




Sandwich Islands Mission 

IN 1846 the Rev. J. S. Green and wife, former 
missionaries of the A. B, C. F. M. in Ma- 
kawao Maui, came under the care of the 
Association. The church, consisting entirely of 
natives at this place, then numbered five hundred 
and thirty-nine members, with a large and flour- 
ishing Sunday-school. The mission had already 
become self-sustaining, — the first of the kind 
of which we have heard, — and as such was en- 
tirely successful. 

Three years later, Mr. Green writes : " As to 
the prospects of the people, I cannot conceal my 
fears. Not less probably than one-tenth of the 
Hawaiian nation have died since October, 1848." 
He adds : " As a church I am fully of the opinion 
that there is as much consistent piety as in 
most churches of my acquaintance in the United 
States; that Christians of the Sandwich Islands 
who some twenty-five years since were enveloped 



in a darkness which might be felt, who were 
gross and stupid idolaters, addicted to all the 
vices that disgrace human nature, should in such 
short time become alert, intelligent, and in every 
respect pure and consistent Christians would be 
an anomaly in the Church of Christ. That many 
of them are aiming to become thus I believe." 

In confirmation of Mr. Green's statement a 
quotation from the Annual Report of 1852 says: 
" The church, which is self-supporting, raised the 
past year $800 toward building a place of wor- 
ship. It also contributes to the antislavery cause 
in the United States. One native church has 
sent $100 to be expended in a prize tract on the 
sinfulness of American slavery. The interest of 
these Christian Hawaiians in behalf of the con- 
version of the oppressed in our own land is very 

In 1855 we read that Rev. Mr. Green has two 
churches under his care with an aggregate of 
one thousand members. 

The interest of the Association was active in 
the Sandwich Islands until the year 1873, when 
the Committee on Foreign Missions at the an- 
nual meeting made a report recommending with- 
drawal from the foreign field, since " Providence, 
which had unmistakably directed the first work 
to foreign missions, had of late years directed 



to a concentration of effort in behalf of the col- 
ored race in the United States." 

West India Missions 

The missions among the emancipated negroes 
in the Island of Jamaica came under the care of 
the Association in 1847. They consisted of four 
central stations and three out-stations. Year by 
year the reports expressed the hopes and fears, 
the joys and trials, of mission life. In 1851, for 
example, one writes, " I believe there never was 
a more important time to work in Jamaica than 
now." The enlargement of operations is strongly 
recommended. " There are great destitutions all 
over the island, and requests are continually com- 
ing in to us to establish new stations. We 
must, however, have more men if we would 
successfully prosecute the work of evangelizing 
Jamaica." Again in 1853 we read: "In many 
respects this field is a hard one. The inheritances 
of slavery are not easily overcome; the vices 
which it engendered have still strong hold, and 
the mission has already realized that the hope 
of the future is in the youth whom they are 
educating and training away from the evils 
which corrupt and destroy." A year later eight 
churches and ten schools, with over seven hun- 



dred pupils, were reported. Thus the mission 
went on as evangelistic work does and as Chris- 
tian schools do, gaining little by little upon the 
ignorance and hereditary vices of the poor people 
whose hard lot in slavery left them not greatly 
better than their ancestors in Africa. But dur- 
ing all this steady, patient, and inconspicuous 
service, others besides the black people of Ja- 
maica were being educated. Though at the time 
they comprehended it not, all this process and 
experience with schools and churches was pre- 
paring the Association and its officers for the 
greater mission which was in the womb of the 
future and to be born in the fulness of time. 
There is a science of missions which comes by 
observation and experience extending through 
the years. The thoughts and plans of mission- 
ary workers, their tentative endeavors, successes 
and failures, are the material out of which this 
science is evolved. The lessons of non-success 
and the reasons which appear in practical expe- 
rience are sometimes as useful in the way of 
caution and teaching what may not be under- 
taken, as are the lessons of achievement which 
indicate the methods of a wise and energetic 
development. The missions among the emanci- 
pated blacks of Jamaica were rich in lessons, both 
negative and positive, which were to make the As- 



sociation a providential agency when God's pur- 
poses should ripen ; and they were ripening fast. 
The mission was continued until 1873, when the 
schools were made over to the government of 
Jamaica. Later the churches were transferred 
to the watch and care of the Baptist denomina- 
tion, and the Association withdrew from the 

Siam Mission 

The Siam mission was adopted in 1848 by a 
curious kind of transfer from the American 
Board. Rev. Dan Beach Bradley, m.d., who 
had been a missionary of the American' Board 
in Siam, but whose " views were thought to be 
incompatible " with that body, explained to the 
Association the inharmonious relations of himself 
and his associate, Rev. Jesse Caswell, with it, and 
gave an interesting history of the mission. That 
the Association did not consider the " heresies " 
dangerous, appears from the adoption of the fol- 
lowing resolution : " Resolved, That the estab- 
lishment of a mission at Siam, and the accept- 
ance by the Executive Committee of the service 
of our esteemed brethren, Messrs. Bradley and 
Caswell, meet with the full approbation of the 
Association; that it be recommended to the Ex- 
ecutive Committee to sustain this interesting 



Mission." Letters from the Prudential Commit- 
tee of the A. B. C. F. M. highly commendatory 
of these brethren and dismissing them from con- 
nection with the Board, made allusion to the 
alleged " doctrinal errors " which in the judg- 
ment of the Board ended their usefulness as 
missionaries in Siam. It will be interesting in 
this year of our Lord to know what was so 
objectionable as to warrant this action. It is 
contained in the statement of Mr. Caswell, to 
which Dr. Bradley gave his substantial assent, 
adding that since he had come to this country 
he had been led to question the propriety of 
infant baptism. He thought the " Biblical au- 
thority " for this rite " somewhat doubtful." He 
frankly informed the Executive Committee that 
the separation from the American Board was 
" not from choice, nor made until it had been 
requested." The statement is as follows : — 

I believe and teach that the provisions of grace are 
such as to authorize the Christian to look to Christ 
with the confident hope and expectation of receiving 
all the aid he needs to enable him to do all the will 
of God, or, in other words, to love God with all his 
heart and his neighbor as himself. Consequently, I 
do not, as some suppose, set aside the grace of Christ 
or the constant dependence on that grace. Whatever 
available power to obey God we have is a free gift 
of his grace. 


Rev. Dan B. Bradley, M.D., Missionary to Siam 


I believe that the answer to the 149th question in 
the " Larger Catechism," which says, " No mere man 
is able either by himself or by any grace received in 
this life perfectly to keep the commands of God, but 
doth daily break them in thought, word, and deed," 
goes beyond what can be proved by the Bible. 

While I have not thought that any actually have 
attained or will attain in this life to a state of entire 
and continued exemption from sin, I believe that to 
affirm the converse of this proposition is going be- 
yond what we have Scripture authority for so doing. 

The Association felt that if there were no 
greater heresies than these, there was no dis- 
qualification for missionary service, and Dr. 
Bradley returned to work with his colleague. 

Siam proper, at whose capital, Bangkok, the 
mission was created, comprised about one hun- 
dred and sixty square miles, and had then a pop- 
ulation of about four million people who spoke 
twelve different languages and formed as many- 
different classes. The prevailing religion of 
Buddhism challenged all the faith and courage 
of those who sought to displace it with the gospel, 
but these brethren, strong in the faith that the 
gospel of Christ is the true power of God unto 
salvation, under this new society, which was not 
afraid of their theological errors, went cheerfully 
to their work. 

The new year had scarcely opened when the 


tidings came of Mr. Caswell's death. Three 
months after he had received the notice of his 
appointment and while the thanksgivings of the 
Association for the gift of so .valuable a mis- 
sionary were being expressed, he was suddenly 
called to higher service in the heavenly world. 
Dr. Bradley wrote, " While I have had moments 
of feeling that I should sink under this last bil- 
low of sorrow, yet my head has been kept above 
its crest by a present service." 

The letters of Dr. Bradley, published from 
time to time in The American Missionary, are 
models of missionary intelligence, describing the 
climate, soil, physical characteristics, and prod- 
ucts of the country, the people, their dress, their 
dwellings, their streets, their habits of thought, 
their methods of life, their schools, their indus- 
tries, the mines and minerals, and whatever is 
peculiar to Siam, with the moral and religious 
conditions and capabilities. They are intensely 
interesting reading for their vivid expression and 
literary excellence, now after the events which 
he so graphically pictured are three-score years 
away. In his pleading for missionary aid, for 
example, he writes : " True, it is a long way from 
our native land, but it is rapidly becoming nearer 
every year. When the Oregon railroad is done 
it will be within thirty-live days of New York! 



And when our telegraph wires are made to cross 
Behring Strait, we can hold converse with our 
friends by lightning power." 

His letters are most optimistic also as to 
the religious future of Siam, but he confesses 
at the same time that his hopes do not rest 
in any marked visible results. " It seems to 
me," he writes in 1851, "that the truths of the 
gospel are spreading and increasing the light, 
and my confidence that now God is going to 
perform a great work here does not fail me." 
At the same time he adds, " I am not aware that 
any of my hearers for the last seven or eight 
months have been brought into the kingdom." 

In 1852 the mission reports " great encour- 
agement." Dr. Bradley has been made physi- 
cian to the king and the royal family, and has 
preached to several large assemblies within the 
palace walls ; at the same time the mission labors 
without much apparent success. 

An illustration of the spirit of Dr. Bradley 
is seen in a quotation from his letter to the 
Association dated Bangkok, Siam, August 19, 

I wish to devote $300 of the enclosed draft as a 
small item of aid to our government in carrying on 
the war for crushing out that atrocious rebellion. 
My whole heart ascends to God in prayer continu- 



ally for our war cause. Please pay over to the War 
Department as soon as you well can the sum above 

I have a son in his twentieth year who would, I 
doubt not, enlist as a volunteer in the army if he were 
living in the States. And I feel that in such a case 
I should not dare to do anything to withhold him 
from it. He as well as myself and his mother con- 
sider $300 as a very cheap substitute for his services 
in the army one year. 

For twenty-six years this mission, with six 
devoted missionaries most of the time, labored 
on in hope and in disappointment. Ten years 
had passed when The American Missionary re- 
ported, " We doubt whether an amount of mis- 
sionary labor equal to what has been employed 
in Siam has ever before been expended with so 
little visible result," and yet the same pages said, 
" Siam as a missionary field is at the present more 
inviting than it has ever been." During the 
entire period the work in Siam continued after 
this manner, characterized by consecrated ability, 
fidelity, and patience, and with little apparent 
result, when Dr. Bradley died in 1874 and his 
son, the only male missionary remaining, re- 
turned to this country, and the Siam Mission was 



Among the Copts in Egypt 

A mission among the Copts was undertaken in 
1854. It did not prove to be hopeful, and after 
five years was discontinued. In 1859 it was 
taken up by the United Presbyterians. 

Canada Mission 

In 1848 the Association followed the slave 
refugees into Canada. Fugitives in great num- 
bers who had settled here and there in Canada 
were distressingly poor and pitiably ignorant. 
The most reliable estimates of the number of 
these fugitives who had reached Canada desti- 
tute and in want of all things placed them at 
about forty thousand. Schools were established 
for these, and teachers for them were sent from 
the States. Several little churches were organ- 
ized, one of them reporting one hundred mem- 
bers and another sixty-one. 

After twelve years of this endeavor we read 
in the Annual Report of i860: " Missionary labor 
has accomplished all that under the circumstances 
could reasonably be expected, and is an encour- 
agement to increased efforts to supply these fugi- 
tives with educational and religious advantages. 



Good schools and a faithful ministry ought to 
be liberally sustained." 

In 1863 the supreme demand of the newly 
emancipated slaves claimed and almost absorbed 
the care and the strength of the Association and 
made the withdrawal from this work in Canada 
a strategic missionary necessity. 




Mission among the O jib was in the Territory of Min- 
nesota, Red Lake, Cass Lake, and Lake Winnipeg; the 
Ottawas at Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan. — New In- 
dian policy in 1870 through Gen. U. S. Grant, President 
of the United States. — The Board of Peace Commis- 
sioners. — Rev. E. P. Smith given general supervision 
of the Association's Indian Missions. — Great improve- 
ment among the tribes. — Transfer of the Indian Mis- 
sions in the great Sioux Reservation in Dakota Territory 
by the A. B. C. F. M. to the Association in exchange for 
African Missions. — Development of educational work 
under Rev. A. L. Riggs, d.d., at Santee, Nebraska, and 
at Oahe under Rev. T. L. Riggs, d.d. — Missions at Fort 
Berthold under Rev. Charles L. Hall. — Missions minis- 
tered unto by Miss Mary C. Collins. — Rosebud. — Fort 
Yates. — The story of Yellow Hawk. — Testimonies of 
Rev. Mary C. Collins as to results in twenty-five years, 
and of Dr. Thomas L. Riggs upon the changed and 
changing conditions of the Indian tribes and the causes 
of these changes. 



WHILE these events were transpiring in 
foreign lands, earnest attention was 
given to Indian missions in our own 
country. These could scarcely be designated as 
" foreign," and yet they were not embraced in 
what was called " The Home Department." In 
the second Annual Report of the Association, 
1847, we rea d of the " new work among the 
Ojibwa or Chippewa Indians in the reservations 
of the Territory of Minnesota." These were 
a part of the Algonquin race, one of the two 
most powerful races of the continent. Their lan- 
guage was remarkable as being singularly per- 
fect and euphonic, with some striking analogies 
to the Hebrew. 

At the Red Lake Station there were six hun- 
dred Indians, about one-half of whom were 
under sixteen years of age. They were cultivat- 
ing one hundred and fifty acres of land and had 
harvested within the year more than two thou- 
sand bushels of corn and fourteen hundred 
5 65 


bushels of potatoes, besides other products of 
their garden. The Indian families had also 
made an average of from four hundred to five 
hundred pounds of sugar each. There were 
eight native members of the church. 

In the Cass Lake Station, the whole number 
of Indians was two hundred. " When the sta- 
tion was commenced in the spring of 1846, but 
four or five families planted their grounds. 
Nearly all depended on the precarious supply 
of wild rice which they could gather from the 
swamps along the margin of the lake." 

In a few years twenty-five families had their 
little fields of corn and several of them had 
builded houses for their families. Some chil- 
dren from every family were in the well-attended 
school. In 1857 these missions, owing to diffi- 
culties among the Indians and the disturbed con- 
dition of the country, were removed from the 
reservation to the west shore of Lake Winnipeg. 
Two years later, letters from the mission in- 
dicated that the missionaries were rapidly com- 
ing to the conclusion that after thirteen years 
the discouragements had become so great that 
this particular field should be relinquished. 

At the same time the Association took under 
its care a mission among the Ojibwas and the 
Ottawas in the northwestern part of Michigan at 



Grand Traverse Bay. The church consisted of 
fifty-eight members, seven of them being whites. 
This mission continued until 1869. 

In 1870 a new Indian policy and work was 
inaugurated. President Grant has the honor of 
being the first chief magistrate of the nation to 
propose citizenship for the Indians. He had the 
sagacity to see that the Indians could never hope 
to attain to the degree of civilization essential 
to citizenship under the conditions which then 
existed. In his inaugural address he had fore- 
shadowed his policy. " The proper treatment of 
the original occupants of the land — the Indians 
— is one deserving careful study. I will favor 
any course toward them which tends to their 
civilization and ultimate citizenship." 

Up to that time for scores of years the tutorage 
by agents and speculators in the schools of fraud 
and whisky had well-nigh destroyed all the efforts 
of the schools and churches and missionaries to 
introduce a policy of truth, justice, humanity, and 
peace. To set on foot a system of education and 
reform was one of the acts of President Grant's 
administration to be remembered. It was the 
beginning of a new day for the Indian. The first 
movement was the appointment, under an act of 
Congress, of a Board of Peace Commissioners 
composed of men from different parts of the 



country whose names carried the assurance of 
wisdom and honesty. The next step was to in- 
vite the cooperation of Christian missionary so- 
cieties, and to give to them the selection of Indian 
agents under whom the appointment of govern- 
ment teachers, physicians, carpenters, and black- 
smiths provided for by treaty was made. The 
American Missionary Association was requested 
to select from these agents, and was the first to 
accept and adopt the new work offered. The 
appointments and assignments were as follows: 
Rev. E. P. Smith, Agent of the Chippewas of 
the Mississippi; Rev. S. M. Clark, Agent of the 
Chippewas of the Superior ; Rev. W. T. Richard- 
son, Agent of the Menomonees and Oneidas in 
Wisconsin; Edwin Eells, Agent of the Skoko- 
mish Indians in Washington Territory. Rev. E. 
P. Smith held the position of secretary of the 
Indian missions with the general supervision of 
this work of the Association among the Indians. 
At the commencement of this policy to reclaim 
the Indians from their wandering, savage life, 
and to turn their thoughts away from cruel pas- 
sions toward peace and good-will, not one family 
in fifty, the Oneidas excepted, were living in 
houses, and even these who were thus sheltered 
had no land to which they had any title. Nearly 
all were living in blankets and wigwams. 



In 1872 the four Indian agencies had become 
seven: the Chippewa in Minnesota, Lake Supe- 
rior and Green Bay in Wisconsin, Fort Berth- 
old and Sisseton in Dakota Territory, Skokomish 
in Washington Territory, and the " Mission In- 
dians " in California. These agencies contin- 
ued for ten years, which were, on the whole, 
years of great advancement for all the tribes, 
though after the administration of General Grant 
had passed, there was less sympathetic coopera- 
tion with the missionary societies in the Depart- 
ment of the Interior at Washington. In the 
thirty-fifth Annual Report of the Executive Com- 
mittee we read : " The peace policy of General 
Grant, which was continued by President Hayes, 
has been productive of great and lasting good 
to the Indians, but . . . reasons have served to 
diminish the interest once taken by the officials 
at Washington in the cooperation of the religious 

The year 1882 marked a significant advance 
in the Indian missions of the Association when 
it transferred the mission in Africa to the Ameri- 
can Board, and took on the mission in Dakota 
and Nebraska, which the American Board had 
formerly maintained. 

Two problems which immediately presented 
themselves were the development of the educa- 



tional work which has its center at Santee, Ne- 
braska, under Rev. A. L. Riggs, d.d., the head 
of a school which numbered one hundred pupils 
of both sexes and all ages; and the extension 
of the evangelizing work which had its main 
center at Oahe in Dakota, under the superin- 
tendence of Rev. Thomas L. Riggs, d.d. The 
whole Sioux tribe of twenty-five thousand souls 
had received but comparatively little missionary 
attention. At Santee the Indians, under the ten 
years of successful mission work of the American 
Board, had accepted Christianity and maintained 
a church with more than two hundred members 
presided over by a native Indian pastor. They 
were settled on their farms and were developing 
in intelligence and enterprise. At Oahe, two hun- 
dred miles up the Missouri River from Santee, 
and near the center from north to south of the 
great Sioux Reservation, some twenty-five In- 
dian families had settled as home traders. These 
also had become Christians and conducted their 
meetings with fervor and decorum. Beyond these 
two stations, the Indians in their encampments, 
in their natural conditions untamed, and but re- 
cently off from the war-path, dwelt in tents and 
log huts, wholly ignorant of agriculture, and fed 
by the rations of the government. They ap- 
peared, however, to be willing to learn farming 



and desirous to know more of " the white man's 
ways." From these two centers there seemed to 
be in the situation a strong appeal for enlarge- 
ment of mission work. 

Beyond the great Sioux Reservation at the 
northern edge of Dakota Territory, almost to 
the British line, was Fort Berthold, under the 
care of Rev. Charles L. Hall. Here were three 
different tribes speaking entirely different tongues 
from that of the Dakota Sioux who had been for 
years their bitter foes. As yet they were unin- 
fluenced by Christian instruction, though some 
of them had made a beginning in the way of 
agriculture. Outside of these mission stations 
the barbarism and rudeness of life cannot well 
be understood by those who have not seen it. 
This was the condition of the Indian fields and 
work when the Association entered upon its new 
duties in 1882. 

An immediate advance was made in missionary 
endeavor at Santee Normal Training School and 
at Oahe. New buildings were constructed and 
a large number of instructors appointed. New 
stations also were undertaken in different locali- 
ties. Miss Mary C. Collins was transferred 
to the special charge of the mission at Grand 
River. Rev. James F. Cross was appointed to 
a new mission at Rosebud Station, and Rev. 



George W. Reed to Standing Rock, otherwise 
called Fort Yates. These were new recruits 
from Yale and Hartford Theological Seminaries. 
Many new out-stations both for white and for 
native teachers were soon entered upon, several 
native churches were organized, and buildings 
were erected for them. Thence onward as before, 
the Riggs brothers patiently and quietly have 
devoted their lives. The young men — now no 
longer young — have seen great transformations 
in the quarter century of their missionary con- 
secration. Miss Collins' teaching and ministry 
have been of most effective and heroic service. 
The Indian work has been out of sight, and has 
not been greatly heralded, but the Indian friends 
have not been ignorant of the faithful efforts 
made to save the wild tribes of the original in- 
habitants of our country. No adequate recog- 
nition can be made of the moral and spiritual 
results of such a life-work as that of the Riggs 
brothers and their equally devoted wives, or of the 
noble consecration of Miss M. C. Collins, or of 
the quarter century of faithful and earnest work 
of the missionaries Hall, Reed, and Cross in their 
isolated stations. 

Twenty-six years have passed since the trans- 
fer of the Indian missions from the American 
Board to the Association. The years have been 



largely those of readjustment, and the settling 
into place on the part of the tribes. The uncon- 
scious movement toward civilization has made it 
hard for the native Christian Indian to keep up 
with the steadily advancing procession, yet, writes 
Dr. Thomas L. Riggs, " The Christian Indian 
is the only man of them all who anywhere near 
keeps his place and holds fast what he has. The 
pace is more rapid than ever before." The work 
is, and doubtless will be, full of difficulties that 
often try the faith and patience of these devoted 
missionaries; at the same time it is rewarded 
with encouragements that cause them to say, 
" We are more than thankful that it has been 
given us to live and be a part of it." 

The story of " Yellow Hawk," as told by Gen. 
Charles H. Howard, while it may not be repre- 
sentative of all Indians, is typical of very many. 
In 1872 Dr. Thomas L. Riggs with General 
Howard drove to Yellow Hawk's village. " We 
found the tall young chief standing by his log 
cabin. He was idle and listless in aspect, in- 
dustry and education being the farthest from his 
thoughts. He had on blanket and leggings, and 
the partings of his hair were painted yellow; 
otherwise his features and expression were of 
the better Indian type. 

" Five years later, in the autumn of 1877, I 



landed from a steamboat at Peoria Bottom, to- 
gether with Dr. Stephen R. Riggs, Dr. Alfred 
L. Riggs, and a number of others, who had come 
to attend the ' Annual Mission Meeting ' of the 
Dakota Indian churches, held for the first time 
in this Teton country. Delegates had come over- 
land from the Sisseton tribe, on the Minnesota 
border, some two hundred and thirty miles dis- 
tant, and others had come up from the Flandreau 
settlements, and from Yankton and the Santee 
agencies, three hundred miles away. 

" It is not within the purpose of this sketch 
to describe this meeting, though it was in its 
encampment and Indian customs picturesque and 
interesting. One of the discussions, conducted 
wholly in the Dakota tongue, related to marriage, 
and was suggested by the fact that some of the 
candidates for church-membership had more than 
one wife. Yellow Hawk had three wives, though 
Spotted Bear, another chief, had but one. It 
was decided, after sympathetic considering of all 
the difficulties, that the candidate must be mar- 
ried in Christian fashion to one of the wives, 
and that he was to put away the others, but see 
to their support. 

" I again saw Yellow Hawk. Five years older, 
he had greatly changed in looks. He was now 
wearing citizen's clothes, could read, having 


T. L. Riggs, LL.D. 


learned with some seventeen others of the adult 
Indians in a night school, the first winter it was 
established. He attended some of the meetings 
and was reading his Bible. He had a fairly 
good field of corn, and had begun to show a 
disposition to work. 

" Mr. Riggs had secured the survey of the 
bottom lands for the purpose of settling the In- 
dians upon farms. In 1880, as soon as the sur- 
vey was filed, Mr. Riggs went with two of the 
chiefs, Yellow Hawk and Spotted Bear, to the 
land office at Springfield, near Yankton, and 
assisted them in making homestead entries. The 
United States registrar thought he had no right 
to accept the filing of an Indian, and so the 
party went to the United States judge of the 
district, and the two Indians were regularly 
naturalized. This was a novel thing for one 
who was American-born, and whose ancestors 
had been natives of the country. Since then it 
has been decided officially to be unnecessary. 
Twenty-one other homestead entries were sub- 
sequently made by these Indians on Peoria 

" In 1882 my duties as Indian Inspector 
brought me again in this vicinity, and I saw 
Yellow Hawk and Spotted Bear. They both had 
become members of the church which had been 



organized here in 1879. Two of Yellow Hawk's 
wives had died — one some years before — and 
he was formally married to the one remaining 
at the time he united with the church. Any 
other candidates who had more than one wife 
followed the rule mentioned, and were married 
to the one who had been the first wife, and kindly 
cared for the other or others. As a matter of 
fact, it should be stated that there was not gen- 
erally a plurality of wives among these Indians. 
The greater number had but one wife. 

" At the time of this visit, ten years after my 
first meeting with Yellow Hawk, I heard him 
lead in prayer in the chapel, and also saw him 
in his field riding a mower which he had bought. 
He had also acquired some cattle. 

" My next opportunity for observing, in this 
personal way, the effect of missionary teaching, 
was in the winter of 1885, when Yellow Hawk 
accompanied Mr. Riggs in a tour through New 
England, visiting the churches and public meet- 
ings, and presenting the cause of Indian Mis- 
sions. Yellow Hawk made his own talk, and 
Mr. Riggs interpreted. Great indeed was the 
contrast between the appearance of the blanket 
Indian I had seen leaning against his cabin in 
1872, and Yellow Hawk in 1885 as he now stood 
on the platform, erect, manly, addressing cul- 



tured audiences, and telling what he and his 
people had been, and what the gospel had done 
for him." 

At the present writing, over twenty-one years 
later, Yellow Hawk and Spotted Bear each holds 
the position of pastor to a native church and mis- 
sionary station, elected by the members. Among 
these Indians pertaining to the Cheyenne River 
Agency, Dr. Thomas L. Riggs has at the pres- 
ent time eight organized churches under his 
charge. His work has also been extended north- 
ward about one hundred and twenty-five miles 
to Grand River, where Miss M. C. Collins, who 
was formerly with him here at Oahe, has been 
laboring efficiently for many years and where she 
has now under her care five stations among the 
followers of Sitting Bull. On this same reserva- 
tion (Standing Rock) farther north are also five 
stations under the care of Rev. G. W. Reed. 

The similar gospel work among the large 
tribes of the Rosebud Reservation, located one 
hundred and fifty miles to the southwest, has 
greatly prospered. Dr. T. L. Riggs now has 
the supervision of finding native helpers for these 
tribes, Rev. J. F. Cross, formerly in charge, hav- 
ing been transferred to Alaska. 

I have asked these missionaries to give me 
their own estimates of the results of these patient 



years. Those of Rev. Mary C. Collins and of 
Dr. Thomas L. Riggs may stand for all. Says 
Miss Collins, " When the Indians were without 
Christ it needed a standing army to control them. 
The banks of the Missouri River were dotted with 
military posts, and thousands of soldiers were 
stationed along its banks, well-armed with rifles, 
and ready at a moment's warning to go after 
hostile Indians who were committing severe 
depredations among the early settlers or upon 
other tribes. This has all practically passed 
away. One after another the forts were aban- 
doned as churches increased. The last to go was 
the one on this Standing Rock Agency. Thus 
the missionaries are saving to the government 
millions of dollars. The old restlessness of the 
tribes is passing away; they are settling down on 
their own allotted lands and building up homes, 
and the little children are no longer happy in 
the roving life, but when night comes cry for 
home. Nothing could have brought about this 
change but the religion of Christ. For scores 
of years the military tried to subdue the people 
and it was impossible. But when the churches 
took up the matter in earnest and we placed the 
Bible in the homes and taught the people to 
read it, the story of Jesus with his love and 
wonderful power won their hearts, and many 



have bowed in submission to the laws of man, 
because they accord with the laws of God. The 
building of a church and beside it a Y. M. C. A. 
house, makes a social as well as a religious 
center; and the Christian influence going out 
from it causes a wild and insubordinate race 
of people to become gentle, kind, and industri- 
ous. They cannot pray to the heavenly Father 
daily without being uplifted to a better life. 

" Where the wigwam was the only home, and 
wild deer and the buffalo the only larder, we 
find now the two- or three-room cabin, the well- 
washed floor, the neat beds and pillows. We 
find the cellar in the side stored with potatoes 
and other vegetables, corn and oats in the stable 
ready for the patient steed that must round up 
the flocks or draw freight for the government 
to earn their daily bread. For years these people 
were fed by the government and cared for by the 
United States Army, but the government could 
not civilize them, and only as fast as the mis- 
sionaries could reach and teach them were they 

" Our mission schools have sent out hundreds 
of young men and women to act as living, work- 
ing object-lessons among the people from every 
tribe. These Christian fathers and mothers, home- 
makers and home-keepers, teachers and minis- 



ters, doctors and lawyers, all owe their present 
honored and useful position in life to our good 
Christian schools. Santee, the largest and old- 
est, furnishes every year a large number of well- 
trained young men and women to lead the van 
on the way to the best civilization. Its shops 
furnish blacksmiths and carpenters. Its fields 
send us farmers, and its homes send us women 
of character to be a light unto the people. 

" But the work is not done. The temptations 
coming now are not the temptations of the war- 
path, the wild dance, or the painted faces and 
scalp-locks. They have come from the very civi- 
lization that we are trying to teach them to 
meet. The white man comes, — in many cases 
an outlaw, — and when he arrives in these 
far-off places he is lawless indeed, and leaves 
none of his vices behind him; but his skin is 
white, and to the unskilled child of the prairie 
with the red skin he is a man of the new civi- 
lization. His faults and vices make him a hero, 
and the weak fall under his influence. More 
solid Christians, men and women, are needed to 
hold these white men upright. The American 
Missionary Association has built twelve or four- 
teen new churches for the Indians. It has put 
on the field three new men to superintend mis- 
sionaries. It has taken up several new stations 



for work, and planted the banner of our Lord on 
the outposts. It has struggled to keep it there 
and not to retreat. But the officers of an army 
cannot win a battle; that is fought by the great 
army of men behind them. So a great body of 
Christians must stand back of the Association 
in its working out of its great desire." 

Especially it would be impossible to trace the 
gracious influences of the school at Santee dur- 
ing the past twenty-six years as it has been ad- 
ministered by Rev. Alfred L. Riggs, d.d. Year 
by year these children of nature have come half 
wild to Santee. Aboriginal, yet foreign, unable 
to speak our language, unacquainted with the 
ways of civilization, ignorant of Christianity, 
they have acquired from text-books used in our 
best schools a good English education with facil- 
ity in the accurate use of the English tongue 
without losing their own, a practical knowledge 
of the handicrafts and of successful agriculture, 
and best of all the way of life taught by Him 
who said, " I am come that they might have life, 
and that they might have it more abundantly." 

Dr. Thomas L. Riggs contributes the follow- 
ing as his experience of the changed and 
changing conditions of our first Americans : 

" The native American is conservative. He 
does not change readily in 'his habits of life, his 
6 81 


customs, or his speech. That which has been has 
served his fathers, and why should it not answer 
for his fathers' sons? Nevertheless the changes 
that have taken place affecting him are marked 
and far-reaching. From being a rover at will 
he has now come to have a more or less settled 
abiding-place. From getting his living as a 
hunter of the abundant games of the woodland 
and vast prairies, and from the life of a warrior, 
he has become a peaceful tiller of the soil, a 
stock man, a freighter, and a day-laborer for 
hire, that he may support himself and keep the 
wolf from his door. And instead of the old 
tribal organization in which the chief stood for 
the tribe in dealing with others, and in a measure 
controlled and directed the movements of his 
followers, we now have as the social unit the 
family and the individual. While in some cases 
the tribal organization is still partially in force, 
it nowhere has the vitality and importance for- 
merly existing. This change is so great and 
marks so important a growth as to call for more 
than mention only. To those who know Indians 
and have had direct dealings with them, there 
is but little meaning in the word ' chief.' The 
utter looseness of Indian political life is little 
known to the outside world. From the usually 
published account of visitors every other Indian 


A. L. RlGGS, D.D. 


seems to be a ' chief ' or a ' chief's ' son. This 
is to be accounted for by the fact that in addi- 
tion to the recognized leaders of the tribe there 
are sub-chiefs and heads of important families, 
and moreover every Indian has the happy faculty 
of assuming himself to be the representative of 
his tribe. He enjoys the joke there is in fooling 
the white man. There are, however, those who 
are no chiefs. Chiefs sometimes, though rarely 
in my own acquaintance with the Dakotas, oc- 
cupy their positions by virtue of inheritance — 
being in the royal line, the sons of chiefs. The 
more common path to chieftainship is that of in- 
dividual ability. And, even then, the man comes 
into prominence by the support of his followers. 
The political life of the Indian is largely demo- 
cratic. No chief can long disregard the wishes 
or run counter to the traditions and hopes of 
his following. The individual, though intensely 
democratic, glories in the fact that he belongs 
to the tribe, and he follows his chief because the 
chief represents him, — represents his thought 
and purpose in life. Thus it is readily seen that 
in the nature of things, as with the average poli- 
tician among ourselves, the head of a tribe is 
rarely progressive. Tribal organization in itself 
has always opposed civilization. It could not do 
otherwise, for civilization means its downfall. 



And without any qualification it may be here 
remarked that where any form of this organ- 
ization exists, however loose and stripped of its 
former power, there you have a chilling shadow 
in the way of civilization and progress. It is 
therefore with peculiar satisfaction that the stu- 
dent of Indian affairs and worker for his uplift 
sees the overthrow of the tribal organization. 

" I call attention also to the fact that in the 
changes already noted — change in habitat, 
change in occupation, and change in tribal or- 
ganization — the Indian has been acted upon 
from without. It has been by no choice of his 
that he became a Reservation Indian, and through 
the years of government support has come under 
the system of working for his own support. It 
has been by no wish of his that the old tribal 
organization has largely come to its end. These 
changes have been forced upon him. This should 
be borne in mind, and I shall refer to it again. 

" Self-support and self-government are two 
changes now taking place. With these the In- 
dian is already face to face, and whether he likes 
it or not he must become a self-supporting in- 
dividual. All others will sooner or later go to 
the wall. And to a certain extent the Indian is 
learning how to do this. Self-government comes 
slowly. As yet the spell of the old order is upon 



him. He cannot readily free himself from that 
to which he has been accustomed, which brought 
control and redress from powers outside his own 
will. The individual has always looked to his 
tribal head or to his tribe for protection, and 
later, when suffering a real or fancied injury, to 
the government Indian Agent. When he was 
the aggressor he escaped punishment altogether 
if he could. 

" Another change that i-s surely coming — and 
already partly has come — is accountability to 
law and protection by law. In a measure fed- 
eral laws are enforced upon the Reservations and 
state laws off the Reservations. As might be ex- 
pected, the Indian comes in contact with law in 
punishment for transgression quite frequently 
before he recognizes in it the protection it offers. 
Nevertheless this also is coming. An old French- 
man who had an Indian wife and a large family 
living on the Cheyenne River Reservation, and 
who had grown wealthy in cattle, died not long 
ago, leaving his property by will duly executed 
to be divided equally between his wife and nine 
children. The executor, — a son-in-law, — on 
the suggestion and advice of his attorney, at- 
tempted to shut out two of the daughters from 
their inheritance. Suit was brought by one of 
the daughters, and the estate was ordered settled 



according to the terms of the will. A single 
case of this kind is of far greater value than 
any amount of preaching. 

" Industrial competition is another of the 
changes that are coming, and for which it must 
be confessed the Indian is not yet prepared. 
You cannot expect him to compete with his white 
neighbors. He has not been taught by the school 
of adversity and hard knocks, nor has he learned 
to care for and save what he has under the new 
conditions of life. It takes more than the allot- 
ment of land, the purchase of full farming equip- 
ment and a cow, the cutting of his hair and 
clothing him in trousers to fit him for this. He 
must be taught values, — the value of time as 
well as property, thrift, and stick-to-itiveness. 
His character must be established, and the man, 
the man with a mind and a soul, must be devel- 
oped under his new conditions. 

" There is but one other outward or national 
change that I shall mention, namely, Absorption 
into our body politic. This change is already tak- 
ing place, though so gradually as not to be noticed. 
It does not mean that the race is to die out ; but 
it means that there will be no Indians as such; 
all will be citizens of our common country. This 
change will not be completed in a day nor yet 
in a year. All changes that have taken place, 



and those now in the making, as well as of the 
near future, are summed up in this. Difficult 
problems are to be adjusted — economic, social, 
and educational. Influences that have been 
brought to bear on the outer man alone, pro- 
ducing changes external and changing form 
rather than spirit will sink into insignificance as 
compared with those that go to the making of 
character. Nothing else will stand the test and 
nothing else will safely carry the Indian across 
the rivers of difficulty and evil that flow around 
and over him. Our government with all the 
agencies it commands and with all the millions 
it expends cannot supply to the Indian this one 
thing most needful. And by character I mean 
not only mental equipment and training but that 
which makes such equipment and training fruit- 
ful, — the training of conscience, the training of 
soul, a training so broad and deep as to make life 
honest and true, and which shall bring the man 
into relations with his God. 

" Now consider the active forces that have 
brought about these changes already accom- 
plished and have to do with preparing the In- 
dian to meet the conditions of life in his new 
environment. Chief of these are the following: 
The Reservation and the ration system, industrial 
instruction at large, the schools, the allotment of 



land in severalty and Christian missions. All 
these have had a part in the changes. As active 
agencies some are outgrown, some have only 
begun to be effective, and some have not had 
due recognition, though long active and with 
the largest opportunities and possibilities for the 

" Not to mention the Reservation with its evils, 
and the government method of issuing rations, 
both of which have been influences against in- 
dependent manhood, and both of which were 
forced upon the Indian, I come to the agency 
of industrial instruction. For as if to make 
amends for evils we did not foresee — and with 
the best of motives — we diligently set about 
training the Indians in the industries of civilized 
life. They were to be taught how to farm 
and to raise cattle. Year after year many 
thousands of dollars were expended in sending 
to them as teachers farmers who did not know 
how to farm, and whose time was usually taken 
up in entirely different lines; in the purchase of 
seeds by the ton that often reached the Indian 
too late to be planted; and in the purchase of 
stock cattle, that sooner or later in most cases 
were killed and eaten by the recipients. In some 
cases, indeed, there has been careful oversight 
of these matters by the agent in charge; then, 



again, all that was gained has been lost by a 
change of agents. This branch of well-intended 
education has been shamefully mismanaged. 
Haphazard administration and shiftless govern- 
ment oversight has been the history of the years 
that have gone by. The results therefore have 
been discreditably small for the vast expenditures 
of money. To be sure, the Indian has had his 
hair cut and wears trousers and a hat, and in- 
directly doubtless has learned something by it. 

" Following, and partly coordinate with, this 
industrial experiment an active educational cam- 
paign was begun in the schools. There are 
now twenty-five non-reservation schools, ninety- 
one reservation boarding-schools, and one hun- 
dred and sixty-three reservation day-schools car- 
ried on by the government. It would not be 
just to say that these schools are not doing good 
work. Probably the most of them are, but I 
think much greater good would have followed 
had a rational system of true education obtained 
from the beginning. I agree with the honorable 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs in rating the day- 
school as the most helpful and important, and 
probably go beyond him in his condemnation of 
the government boarding-school on the Reserva- 
tion as a system and in its present almshouse 
and pauperizing condition. Very possibly there 



may have been justification for the large non- 
reservation school in the past, but with an an- 
nual expenditure of two million dollars we have 
a right to ask larger and more satisfactory re- 
sults than those of the past. 

" Another agency that is doing its work in 
showing the Indian the way out of his past, and 
into the new condition of life, is the allotment 
of land in severalty, and the breaking up of the 
Reservation system. Much has been said about 
this movement and much was expected to come 
from it. There were, however, difficulties in the 
way. The less advanced Indian would have none 
of it, and many who received land waited only 
till they could dispose of it for a 'mess of pot- 
tage.' The dreams of good men were thus soon 
disturbed. The plan has not worked. It has 
been found necessary to safeguard the allotments, 
and the end desired, namely, industrious Indians 
supported by their own labor on their own farms, 
may not be universally assured for some time to 
come. However, men learn by their mistakes 
as well as by their successes, and in like manner 
there doubtless have been gains of a sort to the 

" The last agency that I shall name as active 
in the effort to open the eyes of the Indian that 
he may see clearly his changed environment and 



fit himself for its new duties and its privileges 
is that of Christian missions and Christian 
schools. Christian missions among the Indians 
have from the first aimed at their moral uplift; 
aimed to open their eyes and awaken their souls 
that they may see clearly and choose for them- 
selves that which is good. This agency has 
looked to the development of the man from 
within, rather than from without; has stood for 
the growth of character, and has counted all else 
as secondary and subordinate to this. In this 
lies the great difference between Christian mis- 
sions, Christian schools, and all other agencies. 
The one has endeavored to help the man as a 
thinking, reasoning being; the other agencies 
have greatly overlooked this and have endeav- 
ored to change his outer appearance; teaching 
him industries, not as giving him power to con- 
trol himself, but as an occupation; teaching him 
the English language, not as a means to an end, 
but as the end itself. 

" Through our Christian missions there is a 
change in attitude on the part of the Indian, a 
change in thought and outlook of far more im- 
portance than all others, for it marks the growth 
of manhood, and gives us permanent hope for 
the future. The Indian is coming to think of 
himself in relation to others. He is recognizing 



the life and aims of civilization as that of which 
he is a part. He is looking to the meaning of 
things and to their effect on the future. The 
spirit of Christianity — even with those not 
professing Christianity — has greatly changed 
the Indians' thought. This has been an uncon- 
scious movement, and slowly but powerfully is 
transforming whole tribes. But this has not come 
without open and persistent opposition. 

" The Indian missions of The American Mis- 
sionary Association have endeavored all these 
years to build up character, to make men of char- 
acter, to make thinking, reasoning men. In this 
zve have not failed. We have taught the gospel 
of Christ, — that Christ came to save men from 
evil; that every man, Indian or white, must do 
his part; that life means work; that religion is 
more than an outward change; that also means 
a change of heart which calls for and ensures 
outward changes. 

" Our missions and schools have been the 
only constant agencies to follow consistently 
this rational plan to save the Indian. No other 
agency than that which is positively Christian 
has in view the religious nature of the Indian. 
No other schools than Christian schools can be 
expected to raise up religious teachers for these 
people, and, as a matter of fact, no other agency 



provides such men of character and power as 
does that which seeks to save in the name of the 

These testimonies of long-time experience on 
the part of those who have proven by their lives 
among the Indians the value of their knowledge 
may stand for the approval of our missionary 
endeavors among the " First Americans." If the 
story has not been striking, the history has never- 
theless been great. 




Missions in Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota, and Iowa. — In Kentucky under Rev. 
John G. Fee. — The irrepressible conflict. — Violence. — 
First plea for a college at Berea, Kentucky, in 1857. — 
Rev. John A. R. Rogers, the first Principal in 1859. — 
Mob expulsion of all missionaries of the Association from 
Kentucky and North Carolina. — Reopening of Berea 
school after the war in 1865 under Professor Rogers. — 
The first " college " class in 1869. 



THE " Home Department " was organized 
to embrace two distinct fields, the West 
and the South. Those engaged in the 
Western field were located in Ohio and in the 
states west of it, — Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. The work in 
these states was conducted with special purpose 
to bear decided testimony against slavery and 
the sin of caste. 

The missions in slave states had the distinc- 
tion of beginning the first decided efforts to or- 
ganize churches and schools in the South on an 
avowedly antislavery basis. The pioneer in this 
movement was Rev. John G. Fee, of Kentucky, 
the son of a slaveholder, disinherited by his 
father on account of his antislavery principles. 
He, then in the vigor of young manhood, of 
great faith, and, as it proved, of great courage, 
collected a church of non-slaveholders, and ap- 
7 9 7 


plied to The American Missionary Association 
for a commission. Warmly welcomed, his com- 
mission was dated October 10, 1848. In his first 
most optimistic letter to The American Mission- 
ary, three months later, he writes from Ken- 
tucky, " My most sanguine expectations three 
years since did not anticipate such freedom of 
speech as we now have, nor did I expect to see 
such progress among the people in antislavery 
sentiment." The next year he adds, " Our con- 
gregations are regularly increasing in size and 
interest. The general impression through the 
community now is that an antislavery church 
can exist and prosper in a slave state. We have 
peace and can circulate antislavery documents 
with great readiness." 

In 1854 his letters show that he has lost noth- 
ing of his convictions, nor of his determination 
to express them. " Since my last report, we have 
organized one more church. A whole gospel can 
be preached in the South, and churches having 
no fellowship with slavery are organized and 
have fair prospects of success. Within the life- 
time of some now living, we must see from six 
to twelve millions of bondmen with responsibili- 
ties and influences of freedom. Twenty or thirty 
years from this time, what will hold these slaves 
in bondage? No power on earth will do it, as 



I believe. Redemption to the poor slave will 
come. But how shall it come? Shall it be by 
moral means? If freedom shall not come by 
moral means, then will it be by physical, by war 
and carnage? " 

The young man was preaching and praying 
that it might not be " by war and carnage," but 
within six years from this date, " redemption to 
the poor slave " had come, and, alas, by dreadful 
war and carnage. 

It could not possibly be, in the exciting events 
now hastening on the " irrepressible conflict," 
that sentiments like these should go unchallenged. 
Slavery, ever vigilant, saw the danger. The first 
personal indication of it to Mr. Fee came soon. 
He may relate the experience in his own words: 

Preparations had been made for a discussion with 
a young lawyer. He had actually entered upon it and 
made his opening speech at one of my previous ap- 
pointments. I went at the time appointed expecting 
a pleasant debate. I found the accustomed good and 
attractive audience absent, and a lawless band of 
wicked, profane men — about forty — in their stead. 
They presented resolutions accusing me of teaching 
immoral doctrines and of rebelling against law, and 
insisted that I desist, adding, " This is peremptory." 
I demanded to be brought before the law tribunals, if 
I had violated law. If I was teaching error, I asked 
some lawyer, doctor, or preacher, or any half dozen 



of them, to appear before the people and show it, and 
let me have the chance of reply. They replied, " We 
want no discussion," and demanded that I should prom- 
ise not to preach any more there, and that I should 
leave the house, threatening violence if I did not. I 
refused, saying I should do no one thing that had the 
appearance of retreating or of surrendering a right. 
They swore I should, and took me by force, put me on 
my horse, and then with boards and sticks forced my 
horse along, pouring upon me vile abuse and constant 
threats of violence. I regretted it because of the 
effect upon the minds of many friends who were just 
beginning to lend a favorable ear, yet to me it has 
been a blessing. It has driven me nearer to God, my 
strength cast down but not destroyed. 

It was two years after this that Mr. Fee made 
his first plea for a college in Berea. It would 
seem a strange time to think of founding a col- 
lege, but his triumphant faith writes in 1857, 
after the reign of terror had begun, 

Free churches and free schools can be sustained. 
We want teachers, not merely antislavery teachers, but 
Christian teachers, who shall labor to redeem their 
pupils from all sin. 

We need a college here which shall be to Kentucky 
what Oberlin is to Ohio, an antislavery, anti-caste, 
anti-tobacco, anti-sectarian school, — a school under 
Christian influence ; a school that will furnish the best 
possible facilities for those of small means who have 
energy of character that will lead them to work their 



way through this world. Is it practical? It is. I 
know places where improved lands can be bought for 
ten or twelve dollars per acre. Three or four hundred 
acres would secure a village, a home for a colony. 
Faith, persevering trust in God, will overcome all diffi- 
culties. The place for the college is here in the interior 
of Kentucky. 

Thus Berea College began its history in the 
brain of John G. Fee while he was a missionary 
of The American Missionary Association. The 
idea soon became a fact, and Rev. John A. R. 
Rogers, likewise commissioned by the Association, 
was associated with Mr. Fee from the first. Born 
in Cornwall, Connecticut, and from Mayflozver 
ancestry, Mr. Rogers was prepared for Yale Col- 
lege, but his father having moved to the West, 
he entered Oberlin College, from which he was 
graduated in the class of 1850, and from the 
Theological Seminary in 1854. In 1858 he went 
to Berea, and in 1859 the school was opened with 
Rogers as its head. Previous to the opening the 
question arose, " Should colored children be ad- 
mitted into the schoolroom with white chil- 
dren?" The discussion was lively and opinions 
were divided. Two sets of directors were put 
in nomination, and Mr. Fee writes to the As- 
sociation, " The directors for the anti-caste school 
were elected by a majority of more than two to 



one, this, too, at an unusually large meeting of 
the voters of the district." No doubt this result 
was in part due to the steadfast opposition to 
caste on the part of the incoming principal, for 
Mr. Fee writes, " Brother Rogers, who has the 
care of the school, announced his purpose not 
to enter it unless it should be open to all." 

Immediately Mr. Fee went North to interest 
those who would listen to him in behalf of this 
new endeavor. It was in the days when the 
Association and all identified with it were looked 
upon with distrust as disturbers of the peace of 
the churches, and though Mr. Fee found few 
friends among the wealthy, he secured sufficient 
aid to encourage him to go forward. Had he 
received only rebuffs, and they were many, there 
would have been to him no discouragement. The 
meaning of the word was beyond his comprehen- 
sion. He never turned to it in his dictionary. 

The school had begun when Mr. Fee faced 
another riiob. While he was preaching thirty or 
forty armed men demanded that he should cease 
and promise to be silent in the future. " It is 
not impossible," he replied, " that some of you 
may yet want me to come and pray with you, 
and I should hate to be under a pledge not to 
do it." He could not " make a pledge that might 
conflict with future duty." Upon this they com- 


J. A. R. Rogers, D.D. 


pelled him to remove part of his clothing before 
plying their whips upon him. He knelt to re- 
ceive the blows, but for some unaccountable 
reason they desisted without striking a blow. 

The next year brought the expulsion of 
all the missions of the Association from Ken- 
tucky and North Carolina. The onset began at 
Berea, while Mr. Fee was in the North solicit- 
ing funds for the school, when a committee of 
sixty-two persons appointed at a public meeting 
held at Richmond, the county-seat, came to Berea 
and warned the principal men to leave the place 
within ten days. Upon this they appealed for 
protection to the governor of Kentucky. He 
assured them that he could not give it, and thus 
thirty-six persons were expelled from the state. 

After the war in 1865 ^ e school was re- 
opened and again under Professor Rogers with 
a large attendance. Immediately the question of 
caste presented itself for reconsideration. Three 
colored pupils applied for admission and were 
accepted, — the first time that colored students 
in the South had been admitted to a school with 
the whites. Most of the white students left, but 
later on many returned. 

In 1869 the first college class in the institu- 
tion sustained by the Association was started, 
consisting of five students, all from Kentucky. 



At this time Dr. Rogers declined to accept the 
presidency, but remained as a professor of Greek 
until 1878. He died in 1906 at the age of seventy- 
eight years. Both he and Mr. Fee — heroic 
souls — had lived to richly inherit the promises 
of great faith and great patience. For many 
years Berea College received appropriations from 
the Association. 




Dark days. — Distrust and prejudice. — The spirit of 
the Association. — Persistent purpose. — The Fugitive 
Slave Law. — Commerce and conservatism. — The sur- 
render of Thomas Sims in Boston in 1850. — Excitement 
and " Indignation Meeting " in Tremont Temple. — 
The American Missionary Association honored by the 
speakers. — Attention called to its stand for principle. — 
Gaining friends. — Light breaking. — The influence of 
the great Avery legacy. — The announcement of war and 
a new field of mission labor. 



THROUGH many discouragements and 
dark days the Association held on to its 
work. It had not secured general pub- 
lic consideration, and only limited recognition 
from churches. Not many wise and not many 
mighty were willing to risk themselves and 
their popularity against the prejudice and dis- 
trust which this agitating "disturber of the 
peace of the churches " carried with itself. 
Its annual meetings were conspicuous for the 
absence of the familiar and influential names 
which were wont to figure on the platforms of 
other benevolent societies. Strong and leading 
men, who at heart disapproved of the silence of 
other societies, were nevertheless not ready to 
identify themselves with this. Its friends, how- 
ever rich they might have been in faith, were 
not among the wealthy, and its yearly income had 
hardly reached $50,000. 

At the same time, while the pages of The 
American Missionary of these days tell the 



story of struggle, they also show that during 
these trying years, when friends were few and 
sympathy was small, the Association never 
bated a jot of heart or hope. While there was 
a persistent antagonism on its part to the atti- 
tude of such societies as maintained any com- 
plicity with slavery, its pages show no hardness 
or bitterness. The patient persistence of an 
unconquerable purpose, " speaking the truth in 
love," is discernible in all its records, and is in 
striking contrast to the utterances and methods 
of those who thought that denunciation strength- 
ened principle and that bitterness attested sin- 
cerity. The spirit of that day is thus indicated : 

We regret the necessity of devoting any portion of 
our columns to a discussion of the relations of other 
Missionary Boards to slavery. It would be much more 
congenial to our feelings to address ourselves to the 
work of giving the gospel to the destitute portions of 
our own and other lands without this hindrance. It 
is not that we undervalue the good which other mis- 
sionary societies have accomplished, or would curtail 
their power to increase their beneficial effects, that we 
allude to what they have done, or neglected to do, on 
this subject. Painful as it may be, we are constrained 
in fidelity to our principles, and by regard for the 
welfare of the oppressed, to give a decided testimony, 
even though in so doing we hazard the loss of the 
good opinion of some whom we love but who do not 



think as we do. Were the religious papers of the 
country open to our communications, we might prefer 
those channels ; but as they are not — with scarce an 
exception — we must make use of the best instrumen- 
tality within our reach. Our object has been to en- 
force correct principles and to secure correct action, 
with the hope ultimately of benefiting all organiza- 
tions and injuring none. We hope we may be guided 
by the spirit of faithfulness and love. 

One who reads the records of those early days 
will certainly not fail to recognize " the spirit 
of faithfulness " written large. 

The Association kept on expressing its con- 
tinued confidence in the correctness of its dis- 
tinctive principles. It felt called on to live and 
work because it believed that these principles did 
not find adequate exemplification in any existing 
missionary organization. To aflord relief to the 
consciences of such as were aggrieved by the 
policy of silence upon the doctrine that man could 
hold property in the body and spirit of his fellow 
men, to rectify public opinion, and especially 
Christian public opinion, was God's call to the 
society; it was far from being popular. 

At its fourth annual meeting in 1850, among 
its " resolutions " reads the following : — 

Resolved, that we believe the Christianity of the 
nation is about to be tested, in view of the late act 



of Congress for recovery of fugitive slaves, which 
appears equally at variance with the principles of the 
Association, the Constitution of the country, and the 
law of God, and that as Christians we do solemnly 
covenant with each other and our colored brethren 
that we cannot obey it, nor any law that contravenes 
the higher law of our Maker, whatever persecution or 
penalty we may be called to suffer. 

This reads tamely enough now, but it was suf- 
ficiently wild in 1850. No one in all the land is 
now disturbed by the constitution of the Associa- 
tion, but if a minister had quoted it at this time 
with approval, most of his congregation would 
have needed the " long prayer " to calm their 
minds; for it meant disturbance. On the side 
of the oppressor were numbers and power. Men 
are still living who remember the Castle Garden 
Meeting called by the New York merchants for 
the avowed purpose of showing to the slave- 
holders of the South that they had no sympathy 
with such an utterance as this society put forth. 
At that meeting the most brilliant young lawyer 
in New York, the son of a New England minis- 
ter, was one of the principal defenders of the 
infamous fugitive slave law, and " prostituted his 
keen intellect to the task of cheering on the 
bloodhounds that were chasing human beings, 
whose only crime was that they fled from slav- 



ery." The religious papers, the theological semi- 
naries, and the great majority of the churches 
practically said, Amen. If the Fugitive Slave 
Law was felt to be a calamity, it was one which 
could not be escaped. The great Daniel Webster 
hesitated before it, and tottered to his fall. 
Other Northern statesmen surrendered their con- 
sciences on the ground that the Fugitive Act was 
" warranted by the Constitution." Thus, while 
commerce and conservatism consented that slave- 
hunters might traverse the free states to search 
for fugitives, and while Boston was sending back 
handcuffed captives without trial into slavery, 
the Association was lifting up its voice as well 
as it could in behalf of righteousness. " Little 
can be hoped," it continues in its missionary 
appeals, " from politicians until the Christian 
churches can be brought to unite prayer and 
effort for its overthrow." 

To one who personally witnessed the surrender 
of Thomas Sims in Boston in the year 1850, we 
are indebted for a look upon the scene : — 

They marched him down to the end of Long Wharf, 
and fastened him to a stanchion in the foul-smelling 
hold of the big Acorn — owned by the same Boston 
merchant who had once before in a similar way dis- 
graced the name. A tug hauled the Acorn out into 
the harbor; her sails were raised, and like a guilty 



specter she stole away in the gray of the morning, 
leaving humiliated and disgraced the city of John 
Hancock, Samuel Adams, and Paul Revere. When 
the crowd retired from witnessing the sailing of the 
Acorn, Court Square was again filled with angry citi- 
zens. It was Wendell Phillips who suggested an ad- 
journment to Tremont Temple that evening. The 
Temple was packed with intellectual, thoughtful men. 
If Boston had been carried away by excitement in 
the morning, she had come to her senses before even- 
ing. The speeches were neither excited nor extreme. 
They were rather conservative and temperate, with 
a somber cast which gave expression to the morti- 
fication and shame and dishonor which seemed to fill 
every heart. I cannot remember which of the speakers 
first struck the note to which so many hearts re- 
sponded : " When God is with us, why do we forget 
him in this war with slavery?" and from that mo- 
ment the war-cry was that of old crusaders, " God 
with us ! God with us ! " The name of The American 
Missionary Association ever since that evening has 
been in my memory inseparably connected with that 
meeting. Whether I then first heard its name, or 
whether it was commended as a model for uniting 
men in opposition to slavery upon Christian as well 
as moral grounds, I cannot now recall, but from that 
night opposition to slavery in the free states took on 
a new form. Men saw that slavery had thrown off 
all disguises, denied its solemn agreements, and en- 
tered upon a campaign of aggression that had no 
bounds, which could not be successfully resisted unless 
there should be union and harmony of action among 



all the societies in the free states laboring for the 
spread of the gospel and the repression of every form 
of crime. 

This meeting in Tremont Temple adjourned to meet 
in convention five days later. This convention, at 
which Horace Mann presided, was unquestionably one 
of the most important ever held in New England. The 
American Missionary Association was again highly 
commended by the speakers and brought conspicuously 
into public notice as the best agency for the protec- 
tion of the colored race. And from that time the 
growth of the Association had a remarkable impulse. 
Its name became familiar. It was seen by many for 
the first time to be a practical agency for the protec- 
tion and improvement of the colored race and a model 
for effective opposition to the increasing aggression 
of the slave power; and it will ever remain a truth 
of history that opposition to slavery made no substan- 
tial progress until it came upon the ground of the As- 
sociation, to enlist the powerful agencies of the pulpit 
and the church, and that the first attempt to raise 
this opposition to that high level was the organization 
and work of The American Missionary Association. 

As God's purpose ripened, the Association 
gained friends. The current had slightly changed, 
and it is easier to steer with the current. Secretary 
Whipple writes that he is " laboring in the midst 
of obloquy," but certainly this was both weaker 
and reduced in quantity as the strange ways of 
God were justifying the faith of those in whom 
his gracious love and power had been working 
8 113 


for the redemption of the oppressed and for the 
purity of his churches. At this time the Annual 
Report deplores the instances " where men in 
high position in the church have apologized for 
the Fugitive Slave Law " and advocated its 
claims to obedience. Showing how compacts de- 
signed to secure freedom had been swept away, 
how free territory had been violently possessed 
by the slave power, how the purity of the ballot- 
box had been destroyed, and how men professing 
godliness had been prominent in these acts, it 
exclaims, " Surely the time is near at hand when 
the church will clearly see that the moral evils 
of slavery cannot be abated while those who are 
involved in its support are received in good stand- 
ing in the Christian churches and have a voice 
in the control of benevolent societies. Providen- 
tial causes at work in this land make more evi- 
dent to all the necessity of our principles in the 
work of Christian missions and philanthropy." 

Nevertheless, though the night had been long 
and dark, the day had begun to break. 

" Faith walks in night, yet is not of the night ; 
And Hope, her fellow, looks into the east, 
Where marking the long cloud-bars all of gold, 
It says, ere day is up, ' Behold the sun ! ' " 

It is not necessary to follow in detail the sev- 
eral steps by which the slave power had so far 



maintained and now sought to increase its as- 
cendency in the Union. For a century it had 
been aggression on the one side and servile ac- 
quiescence on the other. The addition of slave 
states, successful slave legislation, the Missouri 
Compromise, the annexation of Texas, and, at 
last, the Fugitive Slave Law, with the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill, and the Dred Scott decision were 
parts of one purpose to make slavery national. 
The cup of Northern acquiescence to protect and 
perpetuate the crime against humanity was nearly 

The testimonies for the principles of the As- 
sociation came now from new adherents. Albert 
Barnes, in 1857, wrote: — 

There never has been a time when the system of slav- 
ery has been so bold, exacting, arrogant, and danger- 
ous to liberty as at present, when so much could be 
done in favor of the rights of man by plain utterance 
of sentiment ; when so much guilt would be incurred 
by silence. It cannot be right that any one who holds 
the system to be evil . . . should so act that it shall 
be impossible to understand his opinion in relation to it ; 
so act that his conduct could be appealed to as imply- 
ing an apology for slavery. 

At this period a great legacy, exceptional in 
amount for those days, came to the Association 
which not only brought it new courage, but em- 
phasis also to its work. The Rev. Charles Avery 



of Pittsburg, a local preacher in the Protestant 
Methodist Church, left somewhat more than 
$100,000 as " a perpetual fund for disseminat- 
ing the light of the gospel of Jesus Christ and 
the blessings of Christian civilization among the 
benighted black and colored races inhabiting the 
continent of Africa, to be intrusted, managed, 
and applied under the direction of the Executive 
Committee of the Association for the uses afore- 
said and for no other, but leaving to the discre- 
tion of the Association the time and manner of 
its application." Here was confidence. What it 
meant to the missionary society with the general 
distrust that had been its lot, can only be imag- 
ined. Walking by faith was well, but the sight 
of a hundred thousand dollars in its treasury 
strengthened faith immensely. 

The time soon came when faith received its 
justifications. The providences of God, working 
together in natural combination and dependency, 
brought recognition and sympathy with the posi- 
tions which the Association had maintained, and 
when the slave power without disguise demanded 
that slavery should be national, with the alter- 
native of war, the free country was ready with 
the reply : " We cannot consent to extend and 
perpetuate slavery. We cannot permit the sun- 
dering of the nation." 



Now, it was not only evident that God had 
been educating his people in the churches to a 
larger and better comprehension of their duty 
to the oppressed, so that when his clock of time 
struck the hour for their decision they were ready 
for the question, but it was also manifest how 
in the experience of its years the Association had 
been unconsciously prepared to enter upon a serv- 
ice, the magnitude and opportunity of which 
would have staggered its faith, had not its pre- 
vious history made it ready to confront the new 
problem full of promise and the new work full of 
grandeur. When the voice from heaven came, 
" Behold, I have set before thee an open door," 
what could not have been done in the toils of 
centuries now became possible, and the Associa- 
tion, disciplined, tried, experienced, and ready, 
entered into its new inheritance of service. The 
first suggestion of this was almost immediately 
after President Lincoln had issued his proclama- 
tion calling for troops upon the bombardment of 
Fort Sumter. It read : — 

The whole country is in great excitement. War has 
begun. The President of the United States has issued 
his proclamation calling for troops, and multitudinous 
hosts are responding to the call. When the war ceases 
the slave states will, we believe, present one of the 
grandest fields for missionary labor the world ever 



furnished. Should the prayers of the friends of free- 
dom be speedily answered in the emancipation of the 
slaves, a field of usefulness may be opened before us 
that will call for renewed exertion on a greatly in- 
creased scale compared with which our past efforts 
have been preparatory work. 

And before five months had elapsed after the 
declaration of war, the Association announced: 
" Providence has, in a singularly marked manner, 
opened to the Association special fields among 
the African race in Western Africa, in Jamaica, 
in Kentucky, and in North Carolina, and at the 
present time a new field of missionary labor in 
Virginia among our colored people, who are 
under the protection of our military force 



Rev. L. C. Lockwood at Fortress Monroe in 1861. — 
The Association's first school. — Mrs. Mary Peake. — 
Schools at Norfolk, Newport News, and other localities. 

— The " Butler School." — General Armstrong appointed 
by the Association. — Property purchased by the Asso- 
ciation for Hampton Institute. — Hampton begun and 
carried on by the Association under General Armstrong. 

— Opening schools in the track of the Union armies. — 
The North, East, and West coming over to the position of 
the Association. — William Jackson, its first President. — 
Lawrence Brainard, David Thurston. — Dr. E. N. Kirk 
of Boston elected President in 1865. — His ringing words 
for the Association. — The National Council of Congre- 
gational churches acknowledge and approve the Asso- 
ciation and ask the churches for $250,000 for the com- 
ing year. — Collecting agencies organized. — Rev. W. W. 
Patton, d.d., and Rev. J. C. Holbrook, d.d., sent to Great 
Britain. — Rev. C. L. Woodworth in Boston, Rev. E. P. 
Smith in Cincinnati, and Rev. J. R. Shipherd in Chicago. — 
The Freedmen's Bureau and General O. O. Howard. — 
Arthur Tappan. — Enlargement of the work. — Religious 
interests of the Freedmen. — The first chapel built at 
Memphis, Tennessee, in 1866. — Avery Institute, Storrs' 
School in Atlanta, Georgia, and Lewis Normal, now Bal- 
lard, in Macon, Georgia, the same year. 


IN September, 1861, Rev. L. C. Lockwood, 
commissioned by the Association, was at 
Fortress Monroe, and from that place 
writes, " I ask especial interest in your prayers 
that I may be endowed with wisdom and grace 
for these peculiar and momentous responsibili- 
ties." He makes a requisition for " 1,500 Sun- 
day-school primers with pictures attached." 
" Parents and children are delighted with the 
idea of learning to read." "There are 1,800 
contrabands here ; yesterday I opened a Sabbath- 
school in Ex-President Tyler's house. Little did 
he think it would ever be used for such a pur- 
pose. All felt that it was the beginning of 
better days for them and for their children." 

It is here that we have our introduction to 
Mrs. Mary Peake, who has the distinction of 
being the first teacher of the first day-school for 
the freedmen in America. A woman identified 
with the colored race, though herself nearly 
white, began what was in due process of time 



to become and to be known the world over as 
Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. 
Mr. Lockwood writes : " A day-school was com- 
menced last Tuesday, Sept. 17th, with about 
twenty pupils, and since in one week increased 
to forty or fifty. It was suggested by the chil- 
dren themselves. Mrs. Peake is a free woman, 
quite light colored, with qualifications for the 
post. She is devotedly pious and highly re- 
spected among her own people in the commu- 
nity. She will make a good permanent teacher 
worthy of compensation. Mrs. Peake had made 
the most of her chance for education in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia before the schools there were 
closed to her race, and in slavery times, and at 
great personal risk, had taught, not only her hus- 
band, but scores of negroes who had come to 
their cabin by night to learn to read." 

To her God allotted the privilege of opening 
the first reading and writing school among this 
peculiar people, and singular it was that she 
should have been identified with both the white 
and the colored races. Mrs. Peake was born 
in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1823. Her maiden name 
was Mary Smith Kelsey. Her mother was a free 
colored woman, very light, and her father a 
white man, an Englishman of education and cul- 
ture. She was educated about as a white girl 



of good family would have been until she was 
sixteen years of age, when she united with the 
First Baptist Church in Norfolk. In 185 1 she 
was married to Thomas Peake, formerly a slave, 
but afterwards a free man, light colored, intel- 
ligent, pious, and in every respect a worthy 

When Mr. Lockwood secured from the govern- 
ment a cottage for a schoolroom with a family 
room above, Mrs. Peake without pledge of pay 
gave what remained of a life that was ebbing 
away to fifty children every morning and to a 
large class of adults every afternoon. 

Early in the year of 1862 Mrs. Peake's health 
began to decline, and when she learned that she 
must die, she sent her love to the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Association in New York and to 
all her friends of the Mission, saying that she 
was "assured that their cause would triumph; 
that the Association was sowing seed which 
would spring up and become a great tree for 
the shelter of a down-trodden people." What 
would Mrs. Peake have said could she have seen 
the evolution from her first teaching to the pres- 
ent greatness of Hampton Institute? 

I quote from Miss Helen Ludlow : " From the 
room above the school, on Saturday, February 22, 
1862, as the ' All 's well ' of the midnight watch 



sounded through the window of the cottage from 
the war-ships in the Roads, her brave soul crossed 
the bar. Two more weeks, and the early gath- 
ering Sunday-school of the ' Brown Cottage ' 
trooped after Mr. Lockwood to the shore's edge 
to watch with hundreds of praying refugees the 
battle of the Monitor and the Merrimac." 

Other teachers were soon sent down by the 
Association and Mrs. Peake's pioneer school be- 
came the nucleus of a school which soon num- 
bered over three hundred pupils, to hold which 
the walls of the burned court-house were roofed 
and repaired by the Association and dedicated to 
their new use in October, 1862. 

When the supreme event of the war came on 
January 1, 1863, confirming the freedom of those 
who were under the protection of our armies 
and proclaiming the emancipation of all who 
were in slavery, the eager cry for education was 
heard everywhere throughout the South. The 
Association was not slow in responding. In ad- 
dition to Hampton, schools * were opened at Nor- 
folk and Newport News, Portsmouth, Suffolk 

1 The second school in the South opened under Northern teachers for 
colored people was at Hilton Head early in the year 1862. A party of 
teachers sent from Boston under the direction of Edward L. Pierce, three 
of whom were graduates of Yale, opened schools on the Sea Islands, 
several of which continue until now. Prominent among these pioneer 
teachers was Rev. W. E. Park, n. d., then of Andover, Massachusetts, 
who was stationed at St. Helena Island. 



and Yorktown, Virginia; in Beaufort, Hilton 
Head, St. Helena, Port Royal, South Carolina, 
and at Washington, following the army closely. 
The year closed with eighty-three teachers and 
missionaries. At Hampton, General Butler or- 
dered the construction of a larger schoolhouse, 
which was turned over to the Association in 1865 
by General O. O. Howard, who was then commis- 
sioner of the Freedmen's Bureau, and the Hamp- 
ton court-house, which had been used as a 
schoolhouse, was given back to the town by the 
United States government. The little school 
of the Association, now grown to a classified 
body of over six hundred pupils, under the super- 
intendence of Rev. Charles P. Day, with a corps 
of missionary teachers, was again in the loca- 
tion where it began. It was still called the "Butler 

On the 1 2th of March, 1866, Brigadier-General 
S. C. Armstrong, late Colonel of the Eighth 
United States Colored Troops, arrived at Hamp- 
ton to take charge as Freedmen's Bureau Super- 
intendent of ten counties in tide-water, Virginia, 
with headquarters there. The interests of the 
" Butler School " and other freedmen's schools in 
his extensive district were part of his varied 
charge. His reports bearing frequent testimony 
to The American Missionary Association as the 



greatest financial power interested in negro edu- 
cation, suggested that Hampton was the spot for 
a permanent and great educational work, and rec- 
ommended that a valuable estate called " Little 
Scotland," comprising one hundred and fifty-nine 
acres fronting on Hampton River and then in 
the market, be purchased. The Association, upon 
consideration, decided to do this, and to found 
an institution which should combine a practical 
schoolroom education with mental and moral 
uplift of industrial training and self-help. 

The Association was the more ready to meet 
this suggestion of General Armstrong, since the 
theory was not a new one to the committee. The 
Rev. Josiah Brewer had championed these fea- 
tures of missionary endeavor both for the mis- 
sions in Africa and in Jamaica, and they had 
been adopted and carried out on a small scale 
in both places with such advantage as the local 
direction in these missions made possible. The 
Association had also at that time arranged for 
an agricultural department at Talladega. As the 
one whom the Executive Committee had consid- 
ered for principal declined, they realized at once 
that General Armstrong was a born master, and 
decided that if he could be secured to direct the 
new enterprise, there would be no question as 
to its successful administration. 


General S. C. Armstrong at thk Age of Thirty-three 


" Not expecting to have charge but only to help, 
I was surprised one day," wrote Armstrong in 
his biography, " to receive a letter from Secre- 
tary Smith of The American Missionary Associa- 
tion, stating that the man selected for the place 
had declined, and asking if I would take it. I 
wrote ' Yes.' Till then my future had been blind ; 
it had been made clear that there was a work to 
be done for the ex-slave and where and how 
to do it." 

While the matter of the full purchase money 
for " Little Scotland " was " hanging in the air," 
the executor of the Avery estate, in which was 
a legacy of $250,000 for negro education from 
the man who had already made large contribu- 
tions to The American Missionary Association, 
" at the suggestion of the Association paid a visit 
to Hampton." He was impressed with the adapt- 
ability of the location to institutional purposes, 
and shortly after gave to The American Mission- 
ary Association the $10,000 which were still 
needed for the purchase. The property was 
added to the $9,000 already in hand. This was 
the material beginning of Hampton. With Gen- 
eral Armstrong as principal, the school began 
its phenomenally successful life. 

While these events were transpiring a flatter- 
ing offer was made to General Armstrong to 



take charge of Howard University at Washing- 
ton. In his autobiography he writes : " I refused 
for two reasons. First, I was in honor bound 
to The American Missionary Association that had 
so warmly supported me here and carried out 
all my plans. Secondly, I consider my own enter- 
prise here has better possibilities (is more central 
with reference to freedmen and has important 

Academic Hall was erected in 1870, and the 
same year the young institution was incorporated 
as " Hampton Normal and Agricultural Insti- 
tute." In view of General Armstrong's mas- 
terful activity and administrative gifts, the 
Association, in February, 1872, made over the 
title to the property to a board of trustees, of 
which Secretary George Whipple was the presi- 
dent. The story of Hampton under the direction 
of General Armstrong does not need to be told 
here. It has interwoven its history with that of 
the nation. The Association is happy and grate- 
ful in the splendid development and far-reaching 
and blessed influence of its first child — the first 
school planted by the North for the education 
of the children of slavery. 

Alert to opportunity, every advance of the 
army meant a corresponding one for the Asso- 
ciation. The year 1864 was marked by the elec- 


Hon. William Jackson 


tion of Rev. M. E. Strieby as corresponding 
secretary with Dr. Whipple, the addition of 
schools at Memphis, Tennessee; New Orleans, 
and Port Hudson, Louisiana; Vicksburg and 
Natchez, Mississippi; Little Rock and Helena, 
Arkansas. The track of the Union armies can 
thus be traced by that of the close-following 
teachers and missionaries, many of whom were 
the bravest of brave young women. The num- 
ber of these had increased to two hundred and 
fifty. The thing which was anathema but a score 
of years ago had now become the model of true 
patriotism. The contested convictions of 1846 
were the gospel of 1864. The people who in the 
face of opposition had kept on preaching right- 
eousness saw the entire North and East and West 
coming to its side. The men of 1846 were no 
longer misguided reformers ; they were prophets. 
One of these, who died in 1855, was the first 
president of the Association for eight years. 

William Jackson was born at Newton, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1783. He engaged in business in 
Boston at an early age, was prominent as a 
member of the Massachusetts legislature, and 
was the principal agent in constructing the Provi- 
dence and Worcester Railroad. Subsequently, 
while a member of Congress, he became familiar 
with the movements of the slave power, and as 
9 129 


a consequence was one of its most determined 
opponents. Against the remonstrances of his 
political friends in the Whig party, with whom 
he had always acted, amidst much obloquy, he 
united with the Liberty party and was their first 
candidate for governor of Massachusetts. Those 
who disliked his adherence to his principles were 
constrained to acknowledge his sincerity, honesty, 
and consistency. The strength of all his excel- 
lences was in his decided and uniform Christian 
character. When in Congress, he belonged to 
the small band of members that met regularly 
for devotional exercises. During his last illness 
he said : " I never felt so fully the value and 
importance of antislavery labors as I do now. 
Nothing gives me so sweet a satisfaction in look- 
ing back as my labors in the antislavery cause. 
I am thankful that I did not follow the fashion 
in that matter." 

William Jackson was followed in the presi- 
dency of the Association by Hon. Lawrence 
Brainard of Vermont. Rev. David Thurston of 
Maine was the third president. These all serving 
with a faith that never faltered and with a fidel- 
ity which only a great faith could insure, awaited 
the justifications of God. 

In the nineteenth Annual Report in 1865 we 
find the Association rejoicing in the presidency 



of Rev. E. N. Kirk, d.d., of Boston. Those who 
had preceded him had not found the position one 
of unquestioned honor. They could often say 
with the apostle, " As it is written, The reproaches 
of them that reproached thee fell on me." The 
bombardment of Fort Sumter had been heard 
by many who had never listened to the speakers 
from the Association's platform, and when the 
mission schools were organized in the footsteps of 
our soldiers, the conversions to the principles and 
work of the Association were frequent and happy. 
But when in 1865 Dr. Kirk was elected president 
of the Association, it was on his part no recent 
conversion. In the published story of his life 
we read that when he was seventeen and a half 
years of age, in his senior year at Princeton Col- 
lege, — when Wendell Phillips was a child of 
nine years, and full twenty-one years before 
Joshua Giddings made his first speech upon 
slavery, and twenty-six years before the Asso- 
ciation was born, — Edward Norris Kirk took 
the position from which he never swerved. 
The nation at this time was attent upon the 
"Missouri Compromise." At Princeton College 
it required courage for a student to stand forth 
and say of slavery : " What an employment is 
this for a free-born American who professes 
to esteem liberty more than life itself! Let 



me call on every American to bring the case 
home to himself. Think how ineffably distress- 
ing their situation is: sold like beasts and sub- 
jected to the lash of the cruel, mercenary master 
wherever it suits his caprice. Bring this home; 
I repeat it. Suppose you were thus treated, I ask 
what would your feelings be and what would 
be your actions ? If instant despair did not cease, 
would you not risk even your life to escape? 
Who, then, will dispute whether slavery shall be 
checked or extended, that is, whether Missouri 
shall or shall not be admitted to the rights of 
a state without the restrictions of slavery?" 

More than two-score years after this youth- 
ful utterance was .iade the eminent pastor of 
Mount Vernon Church in Boston did not fear to 
speak, but he was cautious. Nine-tenths of the 
Congregational ministers were comparatively 
silent, hoping that the question might be set- 
tled by some compromise or by some peaceable 
change which should eventuate in the destruc- 
tion of slavery. When, however, in 1854, it 
was moved in Congress to repeal the Missouri 
Compromise and decree slavery to Kansas and 
Nebraska, Dr. Kirk could no longer hope against 
hope that the South would come to a better mind. 
Thoroughly antislavery before, he now was out- 
spoken. His sermons and addresses ring with 


Hon. Lawrence Lkainakd 


calls to the people in behalf of the doctrines of 
liberty and brotherhood, and the city of Charles 
Sumner and Wendell Phillips had no more earn- 
est champion of the principles for which The 
American Missionary Association was standing 
than Dr. Kirk. It was fitting then, after ten 
years of noble testimony on his part, during 
which slavery had been destroyed, that he should 
honor the representative position of president of 
the Association with its history of struggle for 
nineteen years. He closed his discourse — the 
annual sermon — by saying : " We are to do our 
part in forming a correct public sentiment. This 
is the sovereign in this country before whom noth- 
ing can stand. Assert the manhood of the negro ; 
make it appear horrible to defraud him, as it is 
to defraud a white man of his rights. Insist 
that every human being on this part of God's 
earth shall stand on a perfect level with every 
other man before the law." Could Dr. Kirk 
have left a better legacy of counsel for the As- 
sociation in these last days? 

It was during this year that the Congrega- 
tional National Council which met in Boston in 
June recommended the Association to the Con- 
gregational churches, and asked that $250,000 
for the year might be contributed to it. As 
yet the Association was without adequate agen- 


cies for collecting the funds, and the first 
step was taken to perfect its organization for 
this purpose. Rev. J. C. Holbrook, d.d., and 
Rev. W. W. Patton, d.d., were invited to rep- 
resent the Association in England and Scot- 
land. Since over $100,000 had been contributed 
and used in the British island of Jamaica by 
the Association for the missionary work there 
among the blacks, it was felt that now our 
Christian friends in Great Britain would cor- 
dially respond to opportunities and demands 
which had come through the emancipation of 
slaves here. 

Three district secretaries were also appointed: 
Rev. C. L. Woodworth, to be located in Boston, 
Rev. E. P. Smith in Cincinnati, and Rev. J. R. 
Shipherd in Chicago. The deputation to Great 
Britain was successful, and, with the other 
agencies, the aggregate cash collections for the 
year lacked but ten per cent of the $250,000 
recommended by the National Council. Most 
efficient aid and encouragement were rendered by 
Major General O. O. Howard, the head of the 
Freedmen's Bureau. This conscientious Chris- 
tian officer, in his devotion to the higher interests 
of the freedmen, in his impartial attention to all 
who were laboring for their good, in his able 
administration of the Bureau with its untried 


Edward N. Kirk, D.U. 


difficulties and perplexities, well deserved the 
thanks of the whole country and the gratitude 
of the emancipated people. 

It is well to remember, as we pass, those who 
pointed the way to this liberty which was now 
everywhere accepted. Perhaps the most promi- 
nent was Arthur Tappan. It was on the Lord's 
Day, July 23 of this year, 1865, that this great 
Christian philanthropist, the early tried and faith- 
ful advocate of the freedom of the slave, in his 
eightieth year ceased from his earthly life. He 
more than any other had made the Mendi Mis- 
sion possible. Doubtless no one person was more 
responsible than he for the organization of the 
Association in 1846. His influence likewise was 
incalculable in preventing the antislavery people 
at that period from turning away from the 
churches when the churches were slow in in- 
dorsing their principles. 

Arthur Tappan was a charter member of the 
Association, one of its vice-presidents, and al- 
ways, from 1846 to the time of his death, an 
influential member of the executive committee. 
His life was interwoven with the first twenty 
years of the Association's history. Born in 1783 
in Northampton, Massachusetts, he had conse- 
crated himself at the age of thirty years, all 
he was and all he had, all he might become 



and secure, in devotion to Christ and through 
him to his fellow men. From this time there 
seemed to be no limit to his endeavors to prove 
his discipleship. Entering into business in 
Portland, Maine, and subsequently in Montreal 
until 1817, when he established himself as 
a silk merchant in New York, he had already- 
evinced his energy and large powers. For 
twenty years onward his successful career made 
him one of the most prosperous of the distin- 
guished merchants of the city. He had the con- 
fidence of all in his unbending integrity, while 
his business extended throughout the whole coun- 
try. His benevolences were wide-spread and 
large in Christian causes. In the great com- 
mercial crisis of 1857 he suffered immense losses, 
but he still retained his ability to contribute gen- 
erously to the Association and all other benevo- 
lences, though on a diminished scale during his 
protracted life. It was he who in the early 
struggles of Oberlin College sent to them Presi- 
dent Finney, who at his death wrote, " Although 
Arthur Tappan failed to do for Oberlin all that 
he intended, yet his promise was the condition of 
the existence of Oberlin as it has been." His 
wise counsels, his energetic determination and 
generous contributions made him the strongest 
and most influential friend of the Association 



during all of its struggling and often stirring 
history of twenty years. 

For thirty years he had been a shining mark 
for every weapon of insult and abuse that op- 
pression could wield. " Thief," " hypocrite," 
" incendiary," " fanatic " were in the familiar 
vocabulary with which he was wont to be pelted. 
His only retort was the constant bestowment of 
thousands from his wealth in evidence of heroic 
fidelity to his convictions of duty. He outlived 
the largeness of his material fortune, but he also 
outlived the narrow and hateful criticisms which 
these convictions brought to him. More; he had 
outlived the iniquity of slavery which he had so 
keenly realized. He had held out against popu- 
lar sentiments and the tyranny of commercial 
greed until the nation had come to see and feel 
the righteousness for which he had prayed and 
lived. He did not die until his eyes had seen the 
salvation of the Lord and he was ready to say, 
" Now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace." 

The executive committee of the Association 
placed upon their permanent records the deep 
" appreciation of his distinguished liberality and 
his earnest labors and sacrifices for the freedom 
of the slave and the welfare of the oppressed. 
His benevolence knew no distinction of race, 
clime, condition, or color, and we gratefully ex- 



press our thanks to the Almighty God that he 
was permitted to witness with exultation the 
downfall of the accursed system against which 
he had so long striven." 

The Rev. Dr. Leonard Bacon, in a discourse 
preached a week after the death of Mr. Tappan, 
outlining his great life, said: "Of course, his 
name in every part of the country was associ- 
ated with all terms of opprobrium. The memo- 
rable anti-abolition riots in the city of New York 
raged with special fury against him. But no 
violence could move him from the cause he had 
deliberately taken in the fear of God. Year by 
year it became manifest that the churches and 
their ministry, whether right or wrong in their 
judgments, were not apostate from Christ, and 
that the people of the North, however they might 
have been misled, were not false to liberty. All 
this our venerable friend observed with growing 
thankfulness, and when the war was ended in the 
vindication of constitutional liberty and in the 
complete extinction of slavery,, his joy was full." 
With the memory of Arthur Tappan preserved, 
the Association will keep its rudder true in all 

With the accession of funds, the work of the 
Association now greatly enlarged. Schools at 
Wilmington, North Carolina; Savannah, Geor- 


Arthur Tappan 


gia; and Jacksonville, Florida, were added. The 
250 teachers and missionaries had become 320, 
and these in 1866 had increased to 353, the states 
of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Alabama, 
and Texas having been added to those already 

At the same time the religious advancement of 
the freedmen was going forward, though less ob- 
viously. It was clearly seen that in the real prog- 
ress of religion, anything reasonable, stable, and 
permanent must begin and keep pace with Chris- 
tian education. If emphasis appears to have 
been placed upon the schools, it was because they 
were the foundation for churches. Fidelity to 
the spiritual nature of these poor people was 
largely — almost entirely — dependent upon en- 
lightenment of the mind. But from the first 
the school was an embryo church. Every-day 
services and Sunday-schools found their home in 
the schoolhouse. 

In 1866 the first chapel built by the Associa- 
tion in the South for the special use of the col- 
ored people was opened at Memphis, Tennessee. 
It was burned with all the colored churches in 
Memphis in a riot against the race that same 
year. A lot also was secured for a church in 
Atlanta, Georgia. 

The first notice of the school that is now Avery 


Institute was given in the Charleston Daily Nezvs 
in May, 1866. It is interesting as a picture of 
the time, a single year after the close of the 
war: — 

We received an invitation to be present at the ex- 
amination of the colored school in the Normal build- 
ing on Thursday afternoon. The scene was novel : 
colored " exhibitors " in Charleston are still in their 
infancy. The school is supported by The American 
Missionary Association of New York. Rev. F. L. 
Cardozo, a native of this city, who finished his studies 
at the University of Glasgow, is the principal, as- 
sisted by a corps of twenty teachers, ten of whom are 
from the North and the remainder colored natives 
from Charleston. The school has about one thousand 
pupils with an average daily attendance of eight hun- 
dred. The studies comprise the entire range of ele- 
mentary branches from the English primer to the 
Latin grammar. The institution was opened in Oc- 
tober, 1865. One-fourth of the pupils were born free, 
and these comprise the more advanced classes. The 
school, therefore, must not be considered as giving a 
fair average of colored education in this city. As it 
is the design to make this a school for the education 
of teachers, the best material has been retained so far 
as practicable and the remainder sent to other schools. 
Thus in some of the classes scarcely a single pure 
black is seen. The greater number in the more ad- 
vanced classes are very fair, but all hues are repre- 
sented. All were very neat and well dressed, and 
bore themselves with great credit to themselves and 
to their teachers. 



A school in Atlanta, Georgia, afterwards 
named " Storrs School," and dedicated in 1867, 
and which continued till 1905, giving a good 
foundation for advanced education to thousands, 
and also one in Macon then named Lewis Normal 
but now called Ballard Normal, sent in their first 
reports this year. 



Long looks forward. — Permanent policy adopted and 
reasons. — Theory and methods of education for an un- 
developed people. — Higher institutions needed to prepare 
teachers and preachers. — Fisk University founded in 
Nashville, Tennessee, in 1866. — The story of Fisk Uni- 
versity and its subsequent history. — General Clinton B. 
Fisk. — President Cravath. — Professor Bennett. — Spence 
and Chase. — Plans in education to include handicrafts 
and industries. 


AT first the Association opened temporary 
/""% schools in barracks and warerooms be- 
longing to the army and in such confis- 
cated buildings as could be secured. The teach- 
ing was very elementary and the work plain. 
The mission had meant simply attention to the 
immediate pressing duty. The work in hand 
claimed the entire attention. But when it be- 
came more complex, it was realized that the 
enthusiasm and missionary consecration which 
for short periods of service had been so ready 
and free, must become a permanent factor ; that 
it must have concentration for efficiency and 
careful supervision and direction for economy. 
Thorough organization and concentration became 
missionary wisdom. Not only were the relative 
fields to be considered, but the relative needs of 
the varied parts. There must be long looks for- 
ward, for it was evident that millions of people 
whose antecedents were barbarism and centuries 
of slavery could not be upraised to Christian 
civilization and privilege by ever so much mere 



elementary education. It was missionary strat- 
egy to collect the scattered forces that were tem- 
porarily distributed in rural districts, reaching 
only obscure localities and hamlets as they had 
followed the armies. 

The question now had come before the Asso- 
ciation as to what should be the permanent policy 
— the principles not only, but the methods, of 
their new missionary endeavor. So far the Asso- 
ciation had made less account of the future than 
it did of the fact that God was leading on, and 
that the Association was assuredly following that 
leading. But now it was face to face with a long 
future. No transient purpose and no transient 
work would do. The salvation of an absolutely 
undeveloped race with a long heredity of igno- 
rance, superstition, and degradation meant gen- 
erations as to time and called for permanent 
institutions. This at once introduced the theory 
and methods of education and indicated what 
should be attempted. The prophetic men who 
were directing the Association believed that 
what experience had proved to be wise and 
efficient influences for Christianizing and civiliz- 
ing white people ought to be equally good for 
black people. Indeed, the evidence already be- 
fore them seemed to be sufficient to justify this 
judgment. The Association had gone far enough 



to confirm the opinion that the black people could 
be enlarged in thought and mind by the same 
influences and methods of discipline which had 
proved their power in other peoples; this much 
against the opinions of the Southern people, who 
held for the most part to the essential incapacity 
of their former slaves for anything beyond ele- 
mentary improvement. At all events, said these 
men in the direction of the Association, we must 
work toward the possibilities. No race can be 
permanently dependent upon another race for its 
ultimate development. This negro race must be 
taught to save itself and how to do it; to work 
out its own future with its own teachers and edu- 
cators. Therefore, reliance must be placed on 
permanent institutions and permanent teachers 
for them, and for the steady and determined con- 
secration of those ready to take up the work with 
this high conception of it. Evidently it would not 
be within the power of this Association or any 
other to upraise the masses numbering millions 
by a sheer dead lift. It could not be wisdom to 
undertake this. Our work must be to save those 
who will go out and save others, and for this they 
must have wisdom and strength. The elementary 
work must be given to teachers of their own race 
as soon as they can be ready to take it. The com- 
mon schools, which at first sprang up in great 



numbers, must give way to graded schools ; these 
graded schools must take on normal departments 
with teachers of experience and devotion who 
shall prepare their pupils for such instruction as 
they in turn may impart in smaller places. This 
theory at once made necessary higher institutions 
with the collegiate intention, which should receive 
exceptional pupils prepared at the secondary 
schools who were approved and encouraged by 
their teachers to seek exceptional education. 
Meanwhile, parochial schools must be continued 
in connection with the little churches of ignorant 
people, the teachers working in the churches as 
well as in the schools. 

For this plan of permanent efficiency it be- 
came necessary to provide the schools with 
" Teachers' Homes," as it was impossible other- 
wise for those who were willing to teach col- 
ored people to secure board and shelter. These 
were intended to be, not only homes for teachers, 
but " social settlements " also for those who 
needed to be taught how to live, — centers of 
Christian evangelism and missionary endeavor. 
From these should go out the influence of per- 
sonal character and example in home life. The 
emphasis of the service from first to last was to 
be on the word " missionary," and with the les- 
sons in schools it was to be religion all the week, 



permeating and vitalizing character; a mighty 
social and civic movement as well as a positively 
Christian one. 

The fathers of forty years ago anticipated the 
criticisms of later years as to the wisdom of col- 
leges for the development of a backward race. 
So, they said, let it be granted that other lines 
of education are imperative; colleges also cer- 
tainly are needed, and we must set the standards 
for the education of the race now! Thorough 
training, large knowledge, and the best culture 
possible are needed to invigorate, direct, purify, 
and broaden life; needed for the wise adminis- 
tration of citizenship, the duties of which are as 
sure to come as the sun is to shine, though to-day 
or to-morrow may be cloudy; needed to over- 
come narrowness, one-sidedness, and incomplete- 

They took their theories of education from 
their estimates of men. If what " is possible " 
was to be demonstrated, there must be institu- 
tions for those whose gifts, attainments, char- 
acter, and example should make them a constant 
and large uplifting hope for others ; a steadying 
power and a wise guidance for those not equally 
privileged or endowed, and which should give 
opportunity for the youth of the future, whose 
intellectual capacity might justify the largest 



mental furnishing. Therefore, they said, edu- 
cate, educate, educate! in all ways, from the 
lowest to the highest, for whatever is possible 
for a full-orbed manhood and womanhood. This, 
of course, predicated the education of the highest 
part of one's nature. Their theory was right. 
If education does not make for spiritual life and 
spiritual power, it is lamentably insufficient. 
Therefore, the gospel of Christ was to be put into 
every study, into every science, into every line of 
thought, and into every form of work. The hope 
of the race must find itself by being in the cur- 
rents of God's holy love and will and providence. 
In accordance with these views the first year 
after peace was declared a school was opened 
in 1866 with the exalted name of Fisk University. 
It is mentioned in the records as a " Colored High 
School," held in the buildings previously used as 
a military hospital. Nashville was then a mili- 
tary cam'p under the command of the late General 
Clinton B. Fisk. The record reads : — 

This Association, already endeared to the colored 
people, has purchased a parcel of ground in the western 
part of the city, and has procured extensive buildings 
from the government, in which will be opened for 
colored children graded schools, a normal school, and 
in time a first-class college. This broad Christian 
foundation will exert a widespread influence upon the 



city of Nashville and the state of Tennessee. It will 
receive liberal patronage from the friends of educa- 
tion in the North. General Fisk had his heart upon 
the inauguration of the two movements above noted 
in behalf of the colored people of Nashville and now 
rejoices in their success. Professor John Ogden of the 
Western Freedmen's Aid Commission and Rev. E. M. 
Cravath of the American Missionary Association will 
be superintendents of the institution. 

A little later the record follows : — 

A large concourse of teachers and pupils, with a 
number of distinguished invited guests, — Governor 
Brownlow, Chancellor Lindsley of the State Univer- 
sity and superintendent of the city schools, Senator 
Bossom, General Fisk, and a goodly number of other 
civilians and officers, — were present to witness the 
opening of this institution. After prayer by the Rev. 
R. E. Allen of the " Presbyterian Church, Rev. E. M. 
Cravath gave a brief statement of the foundation and 
objects of the school." Dr. Cravath's statement was : 
" The buildings were secured by General Fisk. The 
object was to establish a free school for colored chil- 
dren, equal to the best in the country. The building 
when properly furnished would accommodate from 
twelve hundred to fifteen hundred pupils. Children 
would be taught without charge, and the teachers would 
be among the best in the country. They desired also 
to train good teachers in the Normal department. It 
was to be a permanent affair and would be kept up 
at least eight months of the year, if good friends in 



the North kept their pledges. It was called the Fisk 
School. The name honored the school, and he trusted 
that the school would honor the name." 

Superintendent Cravath was followed by Gen- 
eral Fisk, who said he rejoiced that he was per- 
mitted to stand as godfather at the baptism of a 
new and free school. He had been led to take a 
retrospective glance at his own life to-day. Well 
did he remember when, more than a half cen- 
tury ago, his poor widowed mother in midwinter 
bound him out to an old farmer. He remem- 
bered how the farmer sat in his mother's cabin 
and how the contract was written by which he 
was bound out; how he was clothed and sent 
to school; how his bundle was tied up and he 
was put upon a horse behind the farmer with 
his mother's blessing and tears. " These chil- 
dren are much better clad than I was at that 
time." He continued: "Chancellor Lindsley 
gave you a good thought. This war terminates, 
not in slavery, but in liberty for the land. It 
struck the shackles off from the slaves and gave 
liberty to four million of people. And now, 
while yet in the smoke and flame of battle, be- 
fore peace has come and brooded over the land, 
we find these generous people of the North com- 
ing down with all these advantages and giving 
them to the Freedmen freely." 



Governor Brownlow said: " Your naming this 
Fisk School is a just compliment to a meritorious 
man, and I will be pardoned for saying in the 
presence of General Fisk that if a man less pru- 
dent, less kind, less reasonable, and less just, both 
towards white and colored persons, had been 
placed at the head of the Bureau in this city, it 
would have proved a failure. I can only say by 
the way of admonition and encouragement to the 
colored friends: Attend your schools, learn to 
read the word of God, and then learn to love 
and practise it; and by way of caution and ad- 
vice, I admonish you to be mild and temperate in 
your habits and spirit, and your conduct toward 
the white people. As a friend, loving the insti- 
tution and desiring the prosperity of what you 
have undertaken, I advise the teachers, male and 
female, to be exceedingly prudent and cautious, 
and do nothing offensive to the predominant 
party here. You may think it a little strange 
that I give such counsel. I do it because if Gen- 
eral Thomas were to take away his soldiers and 
pull up stakes and leave here, you would not be 
allowed to occupy this schoolroom a week, not 
a week." These teachers were thought to be 
mistaken philanthropists who worked their con- 
sciences overtime. 

After interesting remarks from Rev. R. H. 


Allen, Mr. Walker, and Rev. Mr. Harris, — these 
last colored men, — Rev. E. M. Cravath arose 
and announced that the school would be open 
for pupils at nine o'clock to-morrow, saying: 
" It is deeply gratifying to see an official recog- 
nition from Tennessee in the person of its gov- 
ernor and from the superintendent of the city 
schools of Nashville. The principal, Professor 
Ogden, is a teacher of large experience in Nor- 
mal schools." 

One more record of a few months later: 
"Nashville, June 15: The great ' Fisk ' free 
school for colored children closed its first term 
to-day. A large number of citizens crowded the 
chapel to witness the examination. Nearly one 
thousand pupils are taught in this school by fif- 
teen excellent teachers. The examination to-day 
was a brilliant success." 

So the University with its large name was on 
its way. A university suggests institutions dow- 
ered with great resources, rich with the treasures 
of scholarship, with buildings the growth of 
years, and appliances for research in all the sci- 
ences and the 'ologies, with their graduate stu- 
dents and postgraduate scholars; and here was 
Fisk University in barracks, with the majority 
of its classes in the primary grades. Very well, 
Moses was Moses as truly in the bulrushes as 


Erastus M. Cravath, D.D. 


when, " come to years, he refused to be called the 
son of Pharaoh's daughter," and " way down in 
Egypt land " stood face to face with the king 
and said, " Let my people go." Oxford when it 
began more than a thousand years ago was 
not Oxford of to-day. Yale University, which 
lately celebrated its two hundredth birthday, be- 
gan when half a dozen ministers of the gospel 
brought together a few books and said, We will 
give these for the founding of a college. The 
name is in the interests and purpose, in the faith 
of what is to be, and in the hope of final achieve- 
ment. Let us wait two hundred years and then 
ask whether or not this child was rightly named 

After the school had existed one year The 
American Missionary Association published a 
report from its annual meeting voicing the 
thought and purpose of education in the new 
institution. It read thus : — 

The true method is to show the colored people the 
possibilities of their own race, and inspire in them, 
by visible and living examples, a noble ambition. This, 
sooner than anything else, will remove unworthy preju- 
dice against them, and raise them to respectability and 
influence. It is impossible that a whole people should 
all advance equally. In common as well as in military- 
life there must be leaders, and the mass will advance 
more rapidly because these march ahead. These leaders 



must be trained. For this, Christian colleges are 

In a recent volume entitled From Servitude to 
Service, in which the president of Fisk Univer- 
sity ably set forth the justification of this early 
purpose of the founders of this institution, we 
have a perfect demonstration of the profound 
wisdom of the educational work thus entered 
upon; of the essential necessity of such educa- 
tion and the fruitfulness of it in the progress 
of a people — a wonderful advancement within 
forty years. 

As the institution advanced we read : — 

Providentially there has been developed in connec- 
tion with our educational work in Fisk University a 
remarkable power of song. There have been added to 
the students those who possess special musical ability, 
until a choir of eleven has been selected, whose ren- 
dering of the popular standard pieces of music has 
attracted so much attention that the teachers and trus- 
tees and friends of the institution have felt they had 
a mission to accomplish in behalf of the struggling 
University in which they are being trained and in 
behalf of the education of their race. Under the 
management of Professor G. L. White, who has been 
their instructor in their training and who originated 
the idea of relieving the pressing necessities of the 
University by using the talent of the students, this 
choir has commenced a series of concerts in the North. 


General Clinton B. Fisk 


This was the beginning of the musical depart- 
ment which has won fame for this institution, 
and the beginning and completion of Jubilee Hall. 
The writer of this remembers well when this first 
troupe made its debut at the National Council 
in Oberlin in 1871. When a resolution was of- 
fered thanking it for " the sweet songs of Zion," 
some minister arose to say they were sweet 
songs, but it was not correct to call them " songs 
of Zion." The answer was, " That depends upon 
what you mean by Zion." 

Let us remember here these " Founders." My 
own acquaintance with General Fisk began in the 
winter of 1885, when I came from my parish in 
France to be secretary of The American Mission- 
ary Association. General Fisk sat in the execu- 
tive committee of the Board, a goodly figure to 
look upon, with a commanding presence, thought- 
ful and large-minded, prompt and regular in at- 
tendance, like a soldier. I soon discerned that he 
was one of the most lovable of men. Distin- 
guished in the councils of the Methodist Church 
and loyal to it as became him, he was yet broad 
enough to identify himself thoroughly with a 
society whose officers were members of another 
church family. All the years until his death we 
had the wealth of his wisdom, his large experi- 
ence, his exceptional ability, and his most sincere 



and earnest Christian devotion. He was a con- 
spicuous example of a nobly inspired and divinely 
consecrated life, constantly held sacred to the 
good of others. When one is shining like a radi- 
ant star in witnessing to what is right and noble 
in Christian citizenship, in a world where selfish- 
ness is so common and so mighty in its dominion, 
where materialism has its own gospel, it is well 
for us to recall the reality and power of convic- 
tions to truths which were unpopular, and firm 
adherence to principles, when such adherence did 
not meet with prevailing approval. The memory 
of such a man is a perpetual and triumphant 
testimony to the power and glory of the religion 
of Jesus Christ, an inheritance for our contem- 
plation and imitation in the duties and fidelities 
of life. Such a one was the man whose honored 
name Fisk University bears. May it never cease 
to cherish the memory of one whose whole life 
was expressed in the old Latin phrase, " I am 
a man, and whatever interests man, interests 
me " ! His subsequent benefactions to the school 
amounted to nearly thirty thousand dollars. 

President Cravath was chiefly known to Fisk 
University by his administration there. He en- 
tered upon it in 1875, when the school, scarcely 
nine years old, was yet unformed, and was presi- 
dent of it for a quarter of a century. He put 


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his own stamp upon it. Of large vision, of great 
faith, of prophetic purpose, with positive convic- 
tions and strong will, he had the qualities of 
greatness. While he did not shrink from being 
identified with an unpopular cause, he held his 
convictions with such love for mankind and such 
charity for those who did not share his opinions, 
that he won their personal regard and disarmed 
many prejudices against the institution. His in- 
tellectual power was crowned with Christian 
sincerity and devotion, and his influence upon 
thousands of students will go on in their lives 
for many generations. All this is true and more, 
and yet the early records of The American Mis- 
sionary Association indicate that perhaps Dr. 
Cravath's most significant work was not as presi- 
dent of Fisk after all. For ten years previous, 
as superintendent and field secretary of the As- 
sociation, he traversed the Southland, planning 
with wondrous wisdom for the system of schools 
which in all the years to come should give light 
and save life. He selected sites, purchased prop- 
erties, organized schools of every grade, and 
found the principals who should manage, govern, 
and direct them, and those who should teach. 
AYhen xAtlanta University in Georgia, Storrs 
School in the same city, Talladega College in 
Alabama, Straight University in New Orleans, 



Tougaloo University in Mississippi, Le Moyne 
Normal School at Memphis, Avery Institute in 
Charleston, Gregory Normal in Wilmington, Bal- 
lard Normal in Macon, and very many more were 
in their first stages of evolution, he was there. 
The first building of Atlanta University came 
from The American Missionary Association, and 
Dr. Cravath was the man who supervised its erec- 
tion. If he did not create the institutions, he 
rocked their cradles and led them up from their 
beginnings. This service in his career was a large 
part of a great life, and as one generation passes 
and another comes, so Dr. Cravath lives in thou- 
sands made better by his influence and in the 
presence of the good diffused among multitudes 
who do not know their indebtedness. 

Others have brought repute to Fisk Univer- 
sity among the educational institutions of our 
country. There was Professor A. K. Spence, the 
scholar, for a time head of the school, who left 
an attractive chair of Greek in Michigan Uni- 
versity to give his large and loving life there, 
yet well content so he could be nearer God's 
heart and feel the solemn pulses sending blood 
through all the widespread veins of endless good, 
a pure-minded, public-spirited, noble man, strong 
in goodness. There were Professor H. S. Bennett 
with his true mind and heart, helpful and earnest 

1 60 


and faithful, and Professor F. A. Chase, conscien- 
tious, exact, genuine, the soul of sincerity and 
unselfish consecration. I may not mention those 
who happily remain, who have had their full 
share in making Fisk University what it is. 

There is a story in mythology which tells us 
that Jupiter once offered the prize of immortality 
to him who was most useful to mankind. The 
court of Olympus was thronged with competi- 
tors for the reward — the soldier who had fought 
for his country; the philanthropist whose deeds 
of love for his fellows had caused his name to 
be universally honored; the artist, painter, and 
sculptor whose creations had given form to noble 
ideals and made the earth less gross and dull ; the 
poet by whose genius the people had their songs ; 
the musicians who had incarnated the harmonies 
and melodies to cheer and uplift burdened lives 
were brought forward. A venerable man among 
the observers looked on with intense interest 
in the scene to see which one would be awarded 
the coveted prize. Jupiter seeing him, asked 
who he was. " I am only a looker-on," said the 
sage ; " these competitors were my pupils." 
"Then," said Jupiter, "this is my judgment: 
crown the faithful teacher with the prize awarded 
to the most useful of mankind ! " 

Certainly those who are thus educating a people 
" 161 


" to attain their highest possibilities " are among 
the most useful of mankind. The process of this 
work, inconspicuous though it may be, in which 
graduates have become known and esteemed, and 
it may be eminent, through the teaching and 
fidelity of their instructors, has become not 
merely Christian salvation for multitudes, but 
has been a mighty social and civic blessing to 
many communities. This service cannot be told 
here, but it is written in God's " Book of Remem- 
brance," and whether duly recognized or not 
while the work is quietly going on, in the day 
when the love of God shall be justified to men 
it will receive its reward. 

The story of Fisk University in its beginnings 
has been dwelt upon here because it is a type 
original and permanent. There is nothing so 
indelible as an original stamp. The die which 
gives the impression to coin does not merely 
make its mark upon the surface. Every particle 
under the die feels the impact, and when in the 
years by constant abrasion the stamp no longer 
appears on the surface, it nevertheless, put to 
scientific test, shows that the die went through 
the coin. So in twoscore years, though many 
changes appear on the surface, the character 
works and will work toward the name. The men 
who planted it were not mistaken when they 



said, " There should be an education which 
should demonstrate the possibilities of the race." 
In the adjustment to existing conditions, the 
question of industrial training has not been for- 
gotten. For a people beginning their history 
with the rights and privileges of freedom this 
also was absolutely essential. The Association's 
theory was to make industrial training a con- 
tributing force to Christian education. It did 
not accord with the modern Southern theory of 
negro education that it should be distinct from 
other education and compose about all the needs 
of these poor people destined to be a permanent 
peasant class, and no more. At the same time, 
it was plain enough that the vast majority of 
this people — as indeed all peoples — must live 
by bodily labor. They must earn their bread. 
They must therefore be taught and trained to 
do this in such a way as will contribute to the 
honorable life to which every negro boy should 
aspire. Upon the superstructure of mental en- 
lightenment they must build themselves up by 
intelligent industries. Hence, with the planting 
of permanent schools leading up to higher edu- 
cation, plans were at once made for such indus- 
trial training as seemed to be practical in nearly 
all schools for girls, and, whenever possible, for 
boys. As soon as funds could be secured shops 



were erected for work in wood, iron, and various 
other handicrafts. Labor was honorable and to 
be honored. Thus the creed with which the As- 
sociation began took in the school of the mind, 
the conscience, and the heart; the school for 
handicrafts and for the culture of the soil. Farms 
were connected with several of the higher in- 
stitutions that students might be instructed in 




The school in Charleston, South Carolina. — Relief So- 
cieties. — Freedman's Bureau. — General O. O. Howard. 

— A new feature in administration. — New churches. — 
Organization of Talladega Normal School. — Development 
to Talladega College. — Department of theological study. 

— Emerson Institute in 1868. — Reconstruction and the 
Fourteenth Amendment. — Straight University. — Begin- 
ning of Tougaloo University in Mississippi. — Character- 
istics and features. — The Fifteenth Amendment. — Proc- 
lamation of President U. S. Grant. — Comments of Carl 
Schurz. — Georgia governor's examination of Atlanta 
University. — Testimony of examiners. — Seven new 
chartered institutions. — Twenty " normal " schools. — 
Sixty-nine " common " schools within seven years after 



THOUGH peace had been declared, the 
records of the Association show that 
our work was not permitted to go for- 
ward in peace. In some sections great violence 
was manifested towards the freedmen; their 
newly founded churches and schoolhouses, and 
frequently their habitations, such as they were, 
were destroyed. Personal violence towards the 
negro — most innocent cause of the war — did 
not hesitate at life itself. " The schools " were 
" execrated " by the majority of the whites — 
the teachers ostracised, and " some suffered per- 
sonal violence." 

It will not have escaped the attention of the 
reader that in the report from Avery Institute 
in Charleston, South Carolina, within a year 
after Lee's surrender, ten of the twenty teachers 
were natives of Charleston and identified racially 
with the negro people. These were from the fami- 
lies of free negroes who had been previously 
educated in Charleston. These free negroes, who 
numbered two hundred and sixty-two thousand 



persons in the South in i860, with property es- 
timated at twenty-five million of dollars, — while 
they were subject to much unfriendly legislation, 
and were denied admission to public schools, — 
were not legally excluded from such education 
as they could secure among themselves. Hence, 
from the youth among the free negroes many 
teachers for the elementary grades in the rapidly 
extemporized schools of the Association were 
found in several cities where its schools were 

What was especially remarked also when our 
schools began was the proportion of pupils who 
were far more Anglo-Saxon in their parentage 
than they were African. Indeed, a Southern au- 
thority in a careful work entitled The Resources 
and Population of South Carolina, published in 
1883 with the state imprint, writing of the negro 
people, uses the following words : " One-third has 
a large infusion of white blood. Another third 
has less, but still some; and of the other third 
it would be difficult to find an assured specimen 
of pure African blood. If the lineage of these 
negroes whose color and features seem most un- 
mistakably to mark them as of purely African 
descent be traced, indisputable evidence may often 
be obtained of white parentage more or less 



The teachers who went down from the North 
were soon disillusioned if they were at all influ- 
enced by any other than the most serious mis- 
sionary spirit. Ostracism is a mild term for 
the disesteem with which they were regarded as 
" nigger teachers/' Moreover, colored people 
themselves were not remarkable as being exempt 
from the ordinary characteristics of human 
beings. There were all sorts, — the pious and 
the profane, the virtuous and the vicious, the 
trusting and the jealous, the faithful and the 
treacherous, the industrious and the lazy, the 
prudent and the careless, the bright and the 
stupid, the sprightly and the sullen. Out of 
such families the children came. The teachers 
needed the thirteenth chapter of First Corin- 
thians — and needed it every day — with the 
emphasis on the climacteric and supreme grace 
of all, in order to get on; and many of them 
had the chapter by heart. 

The Association had now reached a stage of 
steady progress and the year 1867 presents but 
few incidents. The work in Africa, the missions 
among the North American Indians, in the Sand- 
wich Islands, and in Siam were duly reported, 
and the customary comments and resolutions 
made; but the attention and interest was upon 
the rapidly developing work among the freed- 



men. In 1861, when the ignorant, half-clad, 
half-famished negroes numbering thousands in 
all had fled to the protection of our armies, 
various " Relief Societies " were formed in the 
North devoted largely to physical help. These 
societies multiplied rapidly and were soon so 
numerous that their labors became conflicting. 
In May, 1866, they were finally concentrated and 
united into the " American Freedmen's Union 
Commission." After this event, the American 
Missionary Association and this Freedmen's 
Commission were recognized by " The Freed- 
man's Bureau " and the country as the two cen- 
tral institutions in the freedmen's work. This 
" Union Commission," however, had scarcely 
been organized before it began to disintegrate. 
The Cincinnati Branch, the oldest of the West- 
ern societies, withdrew and united with the 
American Missionary Association in 1866, and 
the " Cleveland Branch " followed in 1867. The 
Chicago office closed in 1868, which left the As- 
sociation as the sole national organization. The 
Boston, Philadelphia, and Maryland branches, 
however, still continued in active operation. 

The " Freedman's Bureau," created by an act 
of Congress in 1865, is constantly acknowledged 
in the papers of the Association at this period 
with the highest praises for the Chief Commis- 



sioner, Major General O. O. Howard. Under 
his wise and impartial administration the Bureau 
was a constant defense to the Association in times 
of danger, and a most efficient helper in making 
provision for the constantly growing needs of 
its work by the wise disposal of funds to the 
Association for the erection of school buildings. 
Rev. Dr. Wm. W. Patton and Rev. Dr. John 
C. Holbrook were in Great Britain in behalf of 
the Association, which had now entered upon 
an experiment in office administration quite at 
variance with its former and with its present 
method. It was decided to divide the Associa- 
tion into three departments, — the Eastern, the 
Middle West, and the Western; the Eastern, as 
the central office, being located at New York; 
the others at Cincinnati and at Chicago. The 
Middle West Department, with its own secretary, 
treasurer, and Advisory Board, administered 
upon the missionary operations, schools, and 
churches in Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and 
a part of Georgia. The Western Department, 
with its secretary and treasurer, administered 
upon the work in Kansas, Illinois, Missouri, 
Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. 
The Eastern Department contained by far the 
larger number of schools and teachers and had 
for its administrative territory the District of 



Columbia, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North 
and South Carolina, a part of Alabama, and a 
part of Georgia. It was thought that thus the 
increasingly exigent work would be prosecuted 
with greater vigor and would doubtless appeal 
with more urgency to the different parts of the 
country for financial support. The foreign fields 
remained as heretofore under the direction of 
the office at New York. This arrangement was 
entered upon in the hope of financial consolida- 
tion of other agencies, which after a few years 
was brought about when the organization was 
perfected by centralizing the entire administra- 
tion at New York. This period witnessed the 
formation of churches in Charleston, South 
Carolina; Atlanta, Macon, and Andersonville, 
in Georgia; Chattanooga, Nashville, and Mem- 
phis in Tennessee; Talladega and Selma in Ala- 
bama, and Camp Nelson and Berea in Kentucky. 
All of these were ministered unto by white pas- 
tors from the North. The new school buildings 
at Charleston, South Carolina, and Savannah, 
Georgia, were dedicated, and schools were opened 
at Selma, Marion, and Athens in Alabama. 

At Talladega, Alabama, in November, 1867, a 
school was organized with three teachers and 
one hundred and forty pupils. For two years 
previous the " Cleveland Freedman's Aid Com- 


General O. o. How \rd 


mission " had maintained an excellent school at 
this point, so that most of the pupils to enter 
the new school had already received primary in- 
struction. Aided by the government, the Asso- 
ciation had purchased " a fine college property 
consisting of thirty-four acres, and a handsome 
brick building which had been erected before the 
war at a cost of thirty-four thousand dollars." 

When the General Field Agent six months 
subsequently visited the school, he reported, " We 
began last year and now have at Talladega one 
of our best Normal schools in fine working 
order." Nine counties adjacent, thickly popu- 
lated, had no school of any sort. The principal 
was importuned for teachers. He met some of 
the colored people in their log churches and told 
them there was but one way in which they could 
secure a teacher. " Pick out the best specimen 
of a young man you have for a teacher, and 
bring to church with you next Sunday all the 
corn and bacon you can spare for his living. I 
will take him into my school and make a teacher 
of him." 

Following his advice, some brought their corn, 
from a handful to four quarts, — more often a 
handful, — in the pocket, or tied in a handker- 
chief, and laid it on the altar in front of the 
pulpit, singing as they marched around the aisle. 



Eight or nine young men were selected from 
the different localities and furnished with rations. 
These came to Talladega ten, twenty, and thirty 
miles on foot with sacks of corn and bacon on 
their backs. There were positively no accommo- 
dations in Talladega for them, and they were 
obliged to sleep on the floors of such cabins as 
could receive them and give them a chance to bake 
their corn bread by the fire. This they did. For 
their studies, they began with the alphabet, and 
after six months, by giving their whole time to one 
thing, were able to read in the Second and Third 
Readers, and had been taught " by practice upon 
other pupils " in the school " how to teach read- 
ing." In the summer these pupils went home to 
teach " bush " schools until the fall term opened, 
when they were back on time at Talladega and in 
force. The principal had applications from fifty 
more young men and women who wished to come 
in the same way and on the same terms, bringing 
their rations, mostly corn-meal, asking only for 
a place to bake it and a shelter for their heads. 

When the General Field Agent pronounced this 
" one of our best Normal schools," he must have 
had the prophetic vision to see what the years, not 
the months, would develop. Normal schools, two 
years after Appomattox, with ex-slave boys and 
girls for pupils, could only have existed in name, 



as a babe is given the name which he is to wear 
when it stands for somewhat other than a babe. 
In the faith of what was to be, many institutions, 
which have since justified their right to be so called, 
were named " Normal schools," and the young 
teachers who went forth able to read fairly well 
in the " Second Reader " doubtless in time were 
able to prove both their faith and fidelity in their 
larger attainments. The school developed step by 
step with the development of the people. The 
teachers who began the work here proved to be 
teachers of great faith, willing to identify them- 
selves with a service which, not understood, was 
distrusted by the intelligent white people, who as 
yet could not have been expected to welcome these 
unknown mission teachers from the North with 
confidence, nor to look upon their work with cor- 
diality. However, one of the most vitalizing 
forces of this early work was the religious zeal 
and consecration which surrounded it with an 
atmosphere so surcharged with power and love 
that the teachers thought of little else than their 
mission. They lived with their students, worked 
for salaries which barely sustained them, assumed 
burdens in and out of school hours that only de- 
votion to their Lord and the salvation of his 
needy ones could inspire. The supreme and 
ultimate purpose which called forth this self- 



sacrificing missionary spirit was the same as that 
of the churches from which these people of great 
faith came. 

This faith, great and prophetic as it was, could 
not have forecast the Talladega College of to-day. 
It was then housed in one building, erected by 
slaves as a school for the sons of their masters, 
and which in war times had been converted into 
a prison for the Federal soldiers. The Associa- 
tion had purchased this school building for the 
race whose labor had reared it, and whose free- 
dom was due to the army which furnished the 
prisoners. The story of this stately building has 
other points of interest. Its slave carpenter, who 
sawed the first plank and chipped the first shav- 
ing for the edifice, sorrowing most of all because 
his children would never have a chance for edu- 
cation like the children of his masters, has 
lived to see three of them take diplomas in the 
young college, and pursue advanced studies in 
a recitation room containing a window-pane on 
which in 1862 a Yankee soldier had cut the 
words, " Prisoners of war." These children of 
the former " slave carpenter " were for years 
teachers in the institution, and one surren- 
dered her teachership only to become the wife 
of a minister who was trained in the same 



It is a far cry from that day to the present 
Talladega College, with its twenty buildings clus- 
tered about the original campus, its thirty pro- 
fessors and instructors, and its annual average 
attendance of five hundred and fifty pupils in its 
several departments, — preparatory, normal, col- 
legiate, college, theological, — with its indus- 
trial departments in woodworking, in iron and 
printing, and its agricultural, with its farm of 
eight hundred acres, its machinery, tools, and 

Now when twoscore years have passed, the 
visitor at Talladega College will not find the same 
local conditions which existed at the beginning. 
The citizens who could only have been expected 
to meet the school at the outset with distrust and 
perhaps with fears for the outcome, and who 
could not have been other than painfully at vari- 
ance with Northern people and their ideas, are 
counted as their steadfast and greatly appreciated 
friends. They do not hesitate in their cordial 
opinions and commendations of what they see 
every day. Their cordiality is founded upon the 
careful observation of years. They are repre- 
sented on the Board of Trustees. 

In 1868 a church was organized, and teaching 
for preachers was advertised. This brought to- 
gether eighteen students for the ministry but 



three years out of slavery. Now, ten churches 
may be counted as the direct outgrowth of this 
first Congregational Church. In 1873 a distinct 
department of Biblical study was opened. Nearly 
two hundred ministers have received their train- 
ing in this theological department, and many have 
served in different denominations in important 
churches. To Professor George W. Andrews, d.d., 
in thirty-two years' continuous service must be 
accredited most of the instruction and training 
of these. He began his work in 1875. 

In 1879 the institution, with a look forward to 
the beginning of a four years' college course, 
elected the Rev. Henry Swift DeForest, a gradu- 
ate of Yale in the class of 1857, subsequently an 
instructor at that university, and who had been 
drafted into the army in the war between the 
North and the South. In his service as chaplain 
he made his first acquaintance with the South. 
His entrance upon his work at Talladega sixteen 
years later was his second visit. If his welcome, 
either the first time or the second, failed to be im- 
pressive to him, he yet lived long enough to win 
the full confidence and hearty regard of the people 
among whom he wrought out his Christian work, 
and in a way that has made his memory in the 
town as well as in the college both precious and 
permanent. During his administration the regu- 



lar college course was entered upon, though pre- 
vious to this time certain college studies had been 
blended with the theological course. 

This institution, of highest grade for the col- 
ored people in the state, with a constituency of 
six hundred thousand to draw from, certainly 
has had a most interesting history. It carries 
the banner as being the first boarding-school for 
the freedmen in Alabama and the first in the 
United States to introduce among them indus- 
trial training, which has always had its place 
at Talladega. Instruction has been given in 
agriculture, gardening, woodworking (such as 
cabinet-making and carpentry with architectural 
drawing), ironworking, bricklaying, brickmak- 
ing, printing, and cobbling. The girls have been 
taught nursing, domestic science, such as house- 
keeping, millinery, and making of garments and 
laundering. These studies are obligatory. 

The present value of the property at Talladega is 
about $250,000. Additionally above $160,000 have 
been invested in endowments and scholarships. 

The year 1868 introduces us to Emerson Insti- 
tute in Mobile, Alabama, bearing the honored 
name of Ralph Emerson of Rockford, Illinois, 
who made a generous contribution towards the 
necessary purchase money. The principal re- 
ports it as a " college " from the time of its be- 



ginning. " We hope to make the institution one 
of the greatest instrumentalities for good in the 
land." This optimism was not unnatural. The 
Avery Institute at Charleston in 1869, but three 
years of age, sends a report of progress that reads 
like fiction, and yet it is the careful statement of 
Professor Warren, a conscientious and disci- 
plined educator. He writes, " I assumed charge 
of this school in January, 1869. I have taught 
a class of fifteen in Algebra who have made excel- 
lent progress. They understand Algebra as well 
as any class of whites I ever saw; are as quick in 
solving, as apt in explaining. I am daily learn- 
ing to see more differences between individuals 
and less between races." 

As the year closed, it was found that for every 
teacher commissioned by the Association there 
had gone out from the freedmen themselves two 
teachers who had been trained in our schools; 
in all, numbering three hundred and fourteen 
negro recruits as teachers for the negro schools 
in the South within four years. 

Reconstruction was yet in preliminary stages, 
but order was gradually emerging out of chaos. 
The Fourteenth Amendment had made freedom 
secure for those who had been slaves, and the 
Fifteenth had been passed, confirming the freed- 
men in their liberty and in their civil and political 



rights. But what should be done to prepare these 
poor and illiterate persons, living among those 
hostile to their citizenship, for their new and 
weighty responsibilities ? 

The Association sought to answer this ques- 
tion so far as it could for the state of Louisiana 
in founding an institution which it was hoped 
would grow into a full-fledged college. Antici- 
pating this future, the school, like others, at once 
took on the exalted title of " University." The 
thought of those who were responsible for the 
large name probably was that this would not 
merely magnify the character of the school for 
the present, but would also help the institution 
to work more rapidly and consistently towards 
its name. It was no doubt a mistaken judgment, 
but in part it has accomplished the original pur- 
pose in holding unwaveringly to the theory and 
policy of affording the largest possible develop- 
ment for the exceptional students who have 
sought its instruction. This definite and deter- 
mined purpose to further a broad and generous 
education for those who should prove capable 
and worthy, has alone saved the name of " Uni- 
versity " from ridicule. 

Early in the year 1869 the school was chartered 
as Straight University, taking its distinctive 
name from a generous patron, Hon. Seymour 



Straight, of Ohio. Like all schools for the freed- 
men, it opened with the primary grades. But 
the A. M. A. officers rightly believed that such 
was the native ability of its colored people, and 
such their eagerness to learn that higher courses 
of study would soon be in demand, and results 
have partially vindicated their faith and fore- 
sight. In seven years from the founding a class 
of eight was graduated in law; in six, the first 
normal class came out, and in ten the first college 

The establishment of the public school system 
in the South soon after the beginning of recon- 
struction created a demand for teachers, and to 
this end special attention was directed to the devel- 
opment of the normal department with a very 
thorough course of studies. In due time college 
studies were introduced and certain students have 
availed themselves of its provisions to secure its 
advantages for themselves. Meanwhile the insti- 
tution wears its name as an ideal of what it hopes 
some day to realize. 

A theological class was started in 1870, which 
in time developed into a distinct department. 
Over forty now in the active ministry and hon- 
oring their college in their work, owe much of 
their impulse and interest as well as the intelli- 
gence to sustain them in their gracious service to 



the instruction and influence of this department. 
Their churches have become centers of life and 
light for large regions of the state. 

For about ten years a flourishing law school 
was maintained, but this has now become an inde- 
pendent school. The church in connection with 
the school radiates its influence in all the depart- 
ments, and impresses a distinctly Christian stamp 
upon all exercises. 

What Straight University has done or is doing 
for Louisiana and adjoining states cannot be 
expressed in figures, nor be estimated by the 
large number of graduates from the different de- 
partments. Probably for the last fifteen years or 
more the attendance has ranged between five and 
six hundred each year, so that a great host of 
young people have received the elements of an 
English education; have been quickened morally 
and made stronger for the serious work of life. 
They are scattered all over this section of the 
South, where the colored population is especially 
dense, and are found in all the trades and pro- 
fessions. Many of them are successful and rising 
physicians; many of them are pharmacists and 
dentists; many are in law and the ministry; and 
a large per cent are teaching. 

If we bear in mind the fact that the nine hun- 
dred and odd colored public schools are dependent 



almost wholly on the missionary institutions for 
properly qualified teachers, and that Straight has 
furnished more than her proportion, her vital 
relation to the social, moral, and intellectual life 
of the colored people of the Gulf States becomes 
strikingly apparent. But for the leading part her 
students have taken along these lines, the great 
progress of these thirty odd years of freedom 
would have been impossible, and the friction be- 
tween the white and colored races, which is even 
now so serious, would have been tenfold more 
perplexing and dangerous. The position of 
Straight as an institution unsurpassed in the 
quality of its work has often been recognized by 
Southern people. Several of its trustees are citi- 
zens of New Orleans. 

What Straight has done is only preliminary to 
the greater work that lies before her. The de- 
mand for the college and professional courses 
grows apace, as the colored people realize more 
and more that the question of self-help, in which 
lies the preservation of their liberty and citizen- 
ship, must be wrought out under leaders of their 
own race in a large part. Along this path lies the 
independence of character which is the founda- 
tion of selfhood. And that she may be able to 
continue, on a larger scale and in greater perfec- 
tion, the noble educational ministry that distin- 



guishes the thirty years of her history, for which 
the colored people cherish such deep gratitude, 
it is earnestly and ardently hoped that some phi- 
lanthropist and patriot, wishing to benefit his 
kind and country by investing in some institu- 
tion of learning that will yield sixty or a 
hundredfold in the noble fruits of righteous- 
ness, may furnish her the means to enlarge her 
buildings, increase her library, and endow 

In 1870 a new institution at Tougaloo, Missis- 
sippi, ten miles from Jackson, is reported as being 
in the process of preparation. Two dormitories 
had been nearly completed. One hundred acres 
of excellent land were purchased for cultivation 
on the part of the students. A main feature of 
the institution was to be a normal department for 
colored teachers. Here again we have the be- 
ginning of a normal school with a university 
title. The optimism which anticipated the distant 
future has, however, been less harmful to genuine 
advancement in fundamental studies from the 
fact that the teaching (faculties) of all these in- 
stitutions have recognized the actual situation, 
and have labored as faithfully in laying the foun- 
dations for an education as if the institution were 
not overweighted with its name. There is this 
to be said, however, that in thus naming their 



institutions intended for development in higher 
studies the missionary societies were but fol- 
lowing the nomenclature of the South, where 
it was and is the popular custom to designate 
all schools that maintain a certain grade as a 
" college." 

Tougaloo, after thirty-six years of history, 
stands unique among the higher schools of the 
Association in its location. Fisk, Talladega, 
Straight, Tillotson, are located in large towns or 
cities; Tougaloo is in the country. Jackson, the 
state capital and the nearest town, is seven miles 
away. At Tougaloo there is not even a village; 
a railroad station, post-office, store, two or three 
small houses are all that one finds on alighting 
from the Illinois Central train. Hidden from the 
railroad by the woods are the admirably located 
dozen buildings of the school. Back of the build- 
ings are broad stretches of cultivated lands, or- 
chards, and grazing-lands, under student care. 

In the country and in the state, made up mostly 
of plantations, having few large towns or cities, 
in the very heart of the " Black Belt," Tougaloo 
University draws its students mainly from, the 
plantations. Mississippi furnishes most of them, 
but Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, Alabama, 
and Texas are usually represented. Not more 
than one other of the great schools of the South 


Chapel, Tougaloo University, Miss. 

Beard Hail, Tougaloo University, Miss. 


touches so closely the great plantation population, 
— the population most ignorant, most needy, 
most important, most hopeful. In the uplifting 
to character and religious education of the young 
men and women from the plantation lies a large 
hope for the negro race. 

The institution is chiefly devoted to secondary 
and academic grades. The Normal and Academy 
courses are intended to fit for general life and to 
prepare for entrance to college. College work 
was undertaken in 1897 and exceptional students 
have persevered to secure a college diploma. No 
other similar school in the State provides instruc- 
tion in a complete college course. As the years 
move on it is expected that the school will enter 
into the full inheritance of its name. 

Manual training and industrial work has been 
in progress at Tougaloo for two decades. It was 
one of the earliest schools to provide for it, and 
it has had continuous development. Probably no 
other school of its kind under the care of the 
Association has more thoroughly coordinated it 
with its regular school work. The extent and 
thoroughness of the manual training work in the 
courses have been based chiefly on those of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The 
girls are instructed in the various arts of house- 
keeping, needlework and in domestic science. 



The agricultural feature of the school is espe- 
cially emphatic. 

Tougaloo is a thoroughly religious school. 
Christian character is the aim of all its work. 
Rarely have any been graduated from the school 
who are not Christians, and its graduates have 
done good Christian work. The record of some 
of them is a noble one. The testimony of one 
of the most distinguished citizens of Mississippi 
is, " I believe Tougaloo is possibly the most 
potential factor in developing the negroes of 
our state for the high functions of useful citi- 
zens." Several gentlemen of Mississippi are 
upon the Board of Trustees. 

As this year closed, the Association catalogued 
thirty-five churches, seven chartered institutions, 
sixteen graded schools and one hundred and 
forty-seven common schools with about 20,000 
pupils in all, and a permanent school property 
costing over a half million of dollars. 

The year was exceptionally memorable in the 
act of Congress amending the Constitution of the 
United States, the Fifteenth Amendment. The 
Proclamation of President Grant was an unusual 
notification of an unusual event. The importance 
of the Act, however, justified the departure from 
usual custom when he said, " The adoption of the 
Fifteenth Amendment constitutes the greatest 



civil change and the most important event that 
has occurred since the Nation came into life. I 
call the attention of the newly enfranchised race 
to the importance of their striving in every hon- 
orable manner to make themselves worthy of the 
new privilege. To the race more favored here- 
tofore by our laws, I would say, withhold no legal 
privilege of advancement to the new citizen. I 
would therefore call upon Congress and upon the 
people everywhere to see to it that all have the 
opportunity to acquire knowledge which shall 
make their share in the Government a blessing 
and not a danger." 

It was not deemed out of place for the Ameri- 
can Missionary Association to call attention to 
the fact that its very charter of work in the South 
was upon this basis, and that its five hundred mis- 
sionary teachers had given and were giving the 
enfranchised people both the hope and the help 
indispensable for this legal privilege. Believing 
that our form of government cannot endure un- 
less education and intelligence are generally dif- 
fused among the people, it had planted its schools 
among the ignorant to show them not only that 
they could learn for themselves, but also that they 
could teach others what is necessary for good 

This act, pronounced by the President of the 



United States to be " a measure of grander im- 
portance than any other one act of the kind from 
the foundation of our free government to the 
present time," now, after more than three dec- 
ades, is not only challenged with respect to its 
wisdom, but has been practically nullified and 
trampled upon by most of the Southern states. 
The assertiveness of this disfranchisement, and 
the political emphasis given to several acts of 
several states to accomplish this has led many in 
the North to question the political sagacity of the 
Congress which passed the Amendment and of 
the President who approved it. To meet this sen- 
timent, — for it cannot be justly dignified with 
any stronger expression, — the Hon. Carl Schurz 
whose dealing with the question has the moral 
authority which comes from a man who never 
allowed any consideration of policy to obscure its 
ethical meaning, and who wrote from an intimate 
knowledge of all phases of what is called the 
" Negro Problem," declares that the Amendment 
was not only politically wise but was a moral ne- 
cessity. He suggests that had it not been for 
this, the South would have continued under mili- 
tary government, or the colored people would 
have been relegated to a condition of practical 
bondage; their freedom effectively neutralized 
by state and municipal action. 



No one well acquainted with the drift of things in 
the South at that period will have the slightest doubt 
that such a policy, viz., leaving the states lately in 
rebellion " entirely to themselves," would have resulted 
in the substantial reenslavement of the freedmen with 
incalculable troubles to follow. It was foreseen that 
if the exercise of suffrage by the bulk of negroes in 
the South might be undesirable in the long run, it 
might not prove as deplorable as would be an in- 
definite military rule. It was hoped that the Southern 
people might see fit to subject the suffrage in their 
states to suitable qualifications equally applicable to 
whites and blacks. 

" That the suppression of the Negro franchise by 
direct or indirect means is in contravention of the 
spirit and intent of the Fifteenth Amendment hardly 
admits of doubt. The intent of the provisions of the 
State Constitution in question as avowed by many 
Southern men is that the colored people shall not 
vote. . . . This is evidently a political condition which 
cannot continue to exist. It cannot possibly be per- 
manent. There will be a movement either in the direc- 
tion of reducing the negro to a permanent serfdom, 
or a movement in the direction of recognising him 
as a citizen in the true sense of the term. One or the 
other will prevail. ... I risk little in predicting that 
the reactionists are in this respect preparing new 
trouble for the South, and that only their failure can 
prevent that trouble: the reactionists are the worst 
enemies the Southern people have to fear. " 

Mr. Schurz in his discussion gives the hopeful 
view that high-minded Southern men of high 



standing will not consent to be permanently set 
at naught by the reckless among the white popu- 
lation who are using race antipathy and race an- 
tagonism to further their purposes. The united 
efforts now being made for education in the 
South, heartily and effectively supported by wise 
and patriotic and conscientious citizens, can do 
much for a solution of the problem in harmony 
with our free institutions. 

It is not thinkable that the Fifteenth Amend- 
ment can be repealed. It is not probable that the 
country will ever consent to the practical reen- 
slavement of a race once made free. Let us hope 
that the Act of 1870 which President Grant hoped 
might be " a blessing and not a danger " may yet 
have the recognition of a united and loyal people. 
Let us hope. 

In 1 87 1 the Governor of Georgia appointed a 
" Board of Visitors," all Southern gentlemen, 
" to attend the examination of Normal and Pre- 
paratory departments of Atlanta University" and 
report to him. The school had then been in active 
operation about two years. The examinations 
continued through three days. The examiners, 
nine in number, transmitted their experience, 
saying, " at every step of the examination we 
were impressed with the fallacy of the popular 
idea which, in common with thousands of others, 



the majority of the undersigned have heretofore 
entertained, that the members of the African race 
are not capable of a high grade of intellectual 
culture. The rigid tests to which the classes in 
algebra and geometry and Latin and Greek were 
subjected unequivocally demonstrated that under 
judicious training and persevering study, there are 
many who can attain a high grade of intellectual 
culture. Many exhibited a degree of mental cul- 
ture which, considering the length of time their 
minds have been in training, would do credit to 
members of any race." This testimony which 
cheered the hearts of President Ware and Pro- 
fessor Chase has not only been confirmed in the 
subsequent history of the institution, but also 
greatly accentuated. 

But seven years had elapsed since the close of 
the war, and less than a decade had passed since 
the Association had begun to work out its mission 
with any degree of definiteness. As the fruit of 
this decade there were reported seven chartered 
institutions, consisting of Hampton, Fisk, Berea, 
Talladega, Atlanta, Tougaloo, and Straight, to- 
gether with the Theological department of How- 
ard University, twenty graded schools with a 
certain amount of instruction called " Normal," 
with special reference to the preparation of 
teachers, and sixty-nine common schools, chiefly 
13 i93 


under white teachers. Forty-seven students were 
for theological studies, and fifty-six were enrolled 
in regular college classes. Certainly this is a 
good record for seven years out of slavery. 

The number of schools and pupils reported was 
fewer than in the immediate beginning of the 
work in the South, but those which existed had 
become far more significant. 




Withdrawal from all foreign fields except Mendi. — 
Special attention to preparatory schools. — Also to the 
organization of churches. — Rev. G. W. Andrews, d.d., 
in Alabama. — Religion in the schools. — Gifts of Mrs. 
Daniel Stone of Maiden, Mass. — New buildings for 
Atlanta, Talladega, Fisk and Straight chartered institu- 
tions. — Hostility developed in the South. — Ku Klux 
Klan. — The Southern idea of the " problem " versus the 
theory and practise of the Association. — Standing for 
colors. — Death of Rev. E. P. Smith in Africa. — His 
work in the South and in the Indian field. — Death of 
Secretary Whipple. — His character and work. — Death 
of Lewis Tappan. — Death of Rev. Simeon S. Jocelyn. — ■ 
Dr. Strieby's estimate. — The coming of Henry Swift 
DeForest to Talladega College. — His impressions of his 



TEN years had established the Association 
in its theory of missions to the negro 
people. The educational results so far, 
both in extent and quality, had brought a com- 
plete reversal of judgment to those who had ques- 
tioned their capacity and who had believed their 
inferiority to be innate and inherent. But mil- 
lions for whose presence in our country the nation 
was responsible were yet untouched by any positive 
Christian influences. It was, therefore, decided, 
now that the missionary work was thoroughly 
organized, in the interests of concentrated effort 
and in view of the responsibility for this larger 
field, to withdraw from all foreign work with the 
exception of the Mendi Mission in Africa. 

Meanwhile the Southern people, who with 
splendid endeavor had adjusted themselves to 
their new and hard conditions, had inaugurated 
a public school system to afford elementary in- 
struction in which they had so far advanced that 
in many cities and larger towns secular schools 
for the negro children made the duty in this direc- 



tion on the part of the Association less pressing. 
Thoroughly qualified teachers for these, however, 
were as yet few — the product of the schools 
founded and carried on by Northern faith and 
benevolence. Many educated in our schools were 
already doing remarkably well relatively as 
teachers in elementary instruction when the con- 
ditions, the lack of heredity, of early home- 
training, or of any wide and generous reading 
are remembered. But the overwhelming major- 
ity of teachers for the public schools within ten 
years could themselves be but little more than 

It was increasingly evident that Christian 
benevolence, which looked beyond this secular 
elementary and inadequate instruction afforded 
in such public schools as had been started, must 
not stay its hand in the larger missionary neces- 
sity for positively Christian schools, whose char- 
ter should be in the supremacy of Christian 
faith which should do the teaching. The teacher 
who visited the pupils in their homes so that the 
poverty and barrenness of home life felt her ele- 
vating touch, was more than a teacher of geog- 
raphy and arithmetic. It was faithful instruction 
in the studies of the books but it was also religion 
through the week, the Christian influence of the 
Christian school permeating and vitalizing homes 



and character with its saving power. The Asso- 
ciation schools were not only far in advance of 
the purely secular schools in their methods and 
standards of study, but they were also working 
out the teaching of the New Testament in the 
development of character so that principles and 
conduct should be Christian. The state schools 
were not chartered to undertake this kind of 
work. They could not do it. 

There was no question therefore for the Asso- 
ciation as to what was the right way. The public 
schools could relieve it from much of its merely 
elementary work, and they were already doing 
this. This accounts for the fact that the enrol- 
ment of pupils at this period showed a great 
decrease while our work was being concentrated, 
and while the courses of studies and the stand- 
ards were continually being strengthened in 
thoroughness and enlarged in scope. 

It was during this second decade of develop- 
ment that particular endeavor was made for the 
organization of Congregational churches. The 
pleadings for them were constant, and there were 
many tentative experiments to meet these urgent 
requests. It certainly was not because the Asso- 
ciation was indifferent that these churches in- 
creased in no greater numbers, — far from this, 
— but because many endeavors to organize them 



were found in their first steps to be practically 
useless. For the old excitement to give place to 
intelligent conviction, tradition and superstition 
to Bible knowledge, and the sensual enjoyment 
of religious emotion to Christian principle and 
duty, all called for time. The Congregational 
way of self-government in many cases asked for 
a fitness for self-government which did not exist. 
At the same time, such churches as managed to 
live proved in their sound, healthy, religious influ- 
ence that no discouragements should cause the 
Association to relax its efforts to plant churches 
which might live. The Rev. George W. An- 
drews, d.d., who was largely identified with the 
planting of new churches in Alabama, eight hav- 
ing been organized within a short period, wrote, 
in 1875, as follows: 

No tongue can tell the greatness of the need that 
such work be done here as the Association is doing. 
Let me say that there is here a vast wilderness of 
ignorance and sin scarcely entered by the light of a 
Christian civilization. Though this wilderness is alive 
with people, you may travel a hundred miles into it 
and not find a schoolhouse or scarcely a church edifice 
without turning from the way to hunt one, and when 
found you could scarcely guess what the building is 
for. The curse of two hundred years hangs heavy 
upon the people and the land. A true son of the South 
said to me this week, " The future of the negro race 



looks dark. The only hope is to educate the colored 
people; the North must do this, for the South is not 
able, and, moreover, is utterly indifferent to it." 

But so completely at one with the missionary 
purpose of the church work were the schools 
in religious character and influence that it was 
difficult to draw a line between the two depart- 
ments to tell where the one ended and the other 
began. For example, in 1879, of fifty-two grad- 
uates of Atlanta University fifty, at their gradua- 
tion day, proved to be consistently professing 
Christians. Fisk reported additions to the Col- 
lege Church at every communion. At Talladega 
College all but six of the boarding students were 
professing Christians. The pastor at Hampton 
wrote, " Nowhere can teachers be found more 
earnestly evangelical, laboring often beyond their 
strength to bring souls to Christ." At Berea all 
the graduates of the year were professing Chris- 
tians. These Christian students, as they went 
out to their school work in vacations, had learned 
to preach also. It was carefully estimated that 
in this one year one hundred and fifty thousand 
pupils were taught by the students of these higher 
schools. The churches in number had risen to 

We had now come to the close of the second 
term of the Presidential administration of General 



Grant. Conditions had greatly changed since 
the war. The country had been rapidly increas- 
ing in population and in wealth. The Atlantic 
and Pacific oceans had been linked with a line 
of continuous rail. In the North there was a 
general improvement in educational methods. 
Literature in the North had reached a higher 
level than ever. The Association felt the impulse, 
and its higher institutions for the preparation of 
teachers absorbed in a large measure its vigor- 
ous efforts and its resources. Through the gen- 
erous gifts of Mrs. Daniel Stone of Maiden, 
Massachusetts, of $150,000, new buildings had 
been added to Atlanta, Talladega, Fisk, and 
Straight chartered schools. Meanwhile white 
people with courage and noble endeavor were 
adjusting themselves to their new conditions, but 
the Association was meeting a hostility it had 
not experienced before. The barbaric element 
among the whites — and slavery had left a deep 
taint of barbarism — came out in its worst insults 
to the " nigger teachers " with the burning of 
our schoolhouses here and there. The Ku Klux 
Klan, which I find characterized in our magazine 
as the " Thugs of America," an organization to 
overawe the negroes, often sought to terrorize 
their teachers, while the better social elements 
naturally looked askance at those whose presence 



was a reminder of conquest and humiliation. 
These teachers had gone to the blacks with a 
feeling of obligation to those who never before 
had their human rights acknowledged and who 
were needy in body and soul. Meanwhile the 
cause of the negro no longer enlisted in the North 
the same degree of early sentiment which charac- 
terized it. It had come to be a calm and cool — 
somewhat too cool — consideration of Christian 
duty and missionary obligation. It was, never- 
theless, felt to be the great problem before the 

The Southern solution of the problem was 
largely one which relegated the negro to perpet- 
ual inferiority. He was to " keep his place " as 
a member of a subject race, and if necessary he 
was to be compelled to stay in his place. This is 
not to say that there was no exception to this 
theory — only that it was the dominant one. The 
best elements of Southern society wished the 
negro well. They would have him better his con- 
dition, to be a more useful factor in their political 
economy. They favored his education along lines 
that would make him a better laborer and more 
thrifty in his honest acquirements, but they did 
not wish him to aspire socially or politically. He 
must never forget that he is a negro, belonging 
to a race constitutionally inferior. 

The American Missionary Association, with no 


political theories to exploit, with no social doc- 
trines to teach other than those of human brother- 
hood, went to the negro people with the theory 
that God had made of one blood all on the face 
of the earth and that there was one common 
Saviour, whose way of redemption was revealed 
for all men. It simply predicated the manhood 
of the negro as entitled to all that a Christian civ- 
ilization had to give so far as he should prove 
himself capable of receiving it. Whatever knowl- 
edge, whatever influences a Christian civiliza- 
tion has to offer to invigorate and enlarge the 
souls of men anywhere, should not be forbidden 
to the negro or withheld from him. 

It was inevitable at this period that the Associ- 
ation must look for its support to those who ac- 
cepted its principles. It was not influencing or 
antagonizing those who did not accept these 
principles. In whatever disturbances and perse- 
cutions which came through the hostility of those 
who were violent, there was only patience and 
hope for a better day. The records of the 
American Missionary are singularly free from ex- 
hibitions of bitterness. It had no lessons of hos- 
tility towards those who differed. It went with 
its broad principle of love to God and good-will 
to man, and never yielded an iota from the duty 
and privilege included in this principle. 



How, through all the excitement of this trying 
period, it kept on its work of regeneration, stand- 
ing by its colors, teaching and preaching with 
success, can only be explained as we now review 
the history of those days, by the fact that it had 
the guidance of God, and that it was following 
and outworking a wisdom higher than that of 
man. Said John Wesley in his day, " The best 
of all is God with us." The prediction that the 
theories which the Association was outworking 
would fail, was constantly disproved in the Chris- 
tian results of its Christian work. 

It was in 1876 that intelligence came from 
Africa of the death of one whose work for the 
Association for ten years had been very promi- 
nent and efficient. The Rev. E. P. Smith, who 
early entered into the service of the Association 
as District Secretary, stationed at Cincinnati, 
was asked to visit Africa with reference to the 
reconstruction and enlargement of the mission 
work there, and while on this mission he died, 
after an illness of two days, of African fever. 
Mr. Smith was born in South Britain, Connecti- 
cut, and was graduated at Yale College in 1849. 
He studied two years in Union Theological Semi- 
nary, New York, and while there associated him- 
self with Charles Loring Brace in his work of 
reclaiming and finding homes for destitute and 



vagrant children. He completed his theological 
studies in Andover, Massachusetts, and was set- 
tled at Pepperell in that state. At the breaking 
out of the war Mr. Smith gave his services to the 
Christian Commission, where he demonstrated 
his administrative ability to such a degree that 
when the war came to an end he was sought for 
by the Association. After a brief service in Cin- 
cinnati he was called to take charge of the field 
work of the Association in the South, and was 
eminently useful in the work of planting schools 
and colleges for the freedmen. When General 
Grant announced his Indian policy, and invited 
the different benevolent societies to appoint 
agents to cooperate with the government in the 
work of Indian civilization, Mr. Smith offered 
his services and was appointed to Indian tribes 
in Minnesota. His work here brought him after- 
wards an appointment as " Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs " in Washington, D. C. Here he 
met a merciless opposition from designing men 
who sought to profit at the expense of the Indians. 
His faithful administration of the office of Indian 
Commissioner, which he filled with signal ability, 
made him many enemies, and on the retirement 
of the Secretary of the Interior Mr. Smith re- 
signed and was elected President of Howard 
University. This position he was to assume upon, 



his return to America. His sudden death in 
Africa was felt to be a great loss to the Associa- 
tion. His services were such as richly deserve 
its remembrance. 

The heaviest bereavement that had fallen upon 
the Association came at the end of this second 
decade of its Southern work in the death of its 
senior Secretary, Dr. Whipple. From 1846, when 
the little society was a thing of derision and pity, 
for thirty years he had held this post of respon- 
sibility. With a faithfulness and spirit of self- 
sacrifice that they only knew who were in the 
office closest to him, he had held on against popu- 
lar consent to wrong until he had seen the world 
come over to his side. 

One of the early graduates of Oberlin College 
and of its theological school, Dr. Whipple had 
been a professor of mathematics and natural 
philosophy in his alma mater for nine years. He 
brought to the new-born Association not merely 
a radical championship of the rights of man and 
an intense conviction of the sin of slavery, but 
with it a considerate and irenic spirit, a calm and 
judicial mind that had much to do with the char- 
acter which the society took on of positive and 
fearless testimony for its convictions, with the 
gentleness and freedom from the bitterness so 
often seen in those who plead for reforms. Of 



large physical stature, with a poise and dignity 
that were attractive, the first Corresponding Sec- 
retary began his life-work. It was a laborious 
and anxious life, but it was a great one, more 
than fulfilling the hopes of those who had called 
him from the quiet of his studies and his teach- 
ing at Oberlin. 

A clerical assistant, who later came into inti- 
mate knowledge of his quality and character, 
thus writes of him : — 

My first introduction to Secretary Whipple was on 
an afternoon as he sat at his desk in the little upper 
office of 56 Reade Street. There was another desk 
in that room that I was hoping to use for a few months 
if all should be satisfactory, and it was therefore with 
a little trepidation as well as a great deal of interest 
that I looked upon the Senior Secretary. . . . His 
well-knit form and broad shoulders, gray hair — a 
silver halo above his face — a fine broad forehead, and 
kindly eyes looking forth from under Websterian eye- 
brows gave me the impression of a man of unusually 
strong character and intellect. As I came to know him, 
I felt that the patrician element was in his inner nature 
as well as in his outward appearance. If I were asked 
to name the principal characteristics of Secretary 
Whipple as I knew him in the time that followed, 
I should certainly say, " sound judgment and fairness." 
. . . These were strikingly preeminent. But there were 
other qualities I should wish to name. His devotion 
to details was a strong point in all his office work, for 



an accurate knowledge of the subject in hand, so that 
praise or blame should fall only where it was merited, 
formed the basis of his fairness. He knew to the 
minutest detail whereof he spoke and wrote. He was 
industrious to the extreme. I never took my seat in 
the morning without passing a long table in the outer 
office which had this true legend connected with it. 
In the early days when struggle and self-sacrifice were 
prime factors in carrying on the Society's work, Sec- 
retary Whipple burnt his candle at both ends, some- 
times even writing in his office till one or two o'clock 
in the morning; then, wrapping himself in a blanket, 
he would throw himself upon this table for a few hours' 
sleep, rising and resuming work by four or five o'clock. 
Even when I knew him it was difficult to get ahead of 
him in the morning, for he always was very early at 
his desk, working through the day, hardly taking time 
for a hasty luncheon. Vacation or respite was not in 
all his thought. In his letter dictation there was a sort 
of balance as if he were weighing what he was saying. 
Persistency was also a strong characteristic. Sensi- 
tiveness to what was right and wrong made him all 
his life such an intense champion of human rights and 
freedom. His judgments were never quick, but when 
once his opinions were formed, they were so clear to 
his own mind and so reasonable that they carried con- 
viction to other minds. This well-balanced judgment, 
together with his dignity, candor, and noble bearing, 
made him a strong force when he visited Washington 
for conferences with the government on Indian or edu- 
cational affairs. All these stern virtues commanded 
respect. I should be unjust to him, and to myself, if 




I did not add the more genial virtues of simplicity, 
generosity, and kindliness. Though always busy, he 
was ever ready to help others when he could. He 
so tempered his fervor with simplicity, his strength 
with modesty, his profound thought fulness with kind- 
heartedness that no one felt the severity. He was 
kindness itself. If he had the quality of humor, he did 
not have time to indulge it, his life was given so in- 
tensely to more serious things. The nearest approach 
to humor that I recall is that when in looking over a 
letter that he had himself written, which did not quite 
suit him for accuracy, he said to me in a very severe 
tone, " When you make such a blunder as that, I wish 
you would do it in your own handwriting." But as 
his assistant I have no remembrance of a single unjust 
or unkind remark. On the contrary, he was always 
appreciative of work done, and thoughtful of the 
comfort and well-being of those with whom he was 
associated. When death suddenly called him after 
thirty years in the secretaryship, and he left us, it 
was a well-beloved friend who had gone, and he be- 
queathed a great inspiration for others to carry on 
the work he had so well begun and in which he was 
a pioneer. 

Of the other heroic men associated with Dr. 
Whipple in the early and dark days of the anti- 
slavery struggle and of the Association's history, 
many had fallen in death. Five of its presidents 
had in succession died. Mr. Lewis Tappan, to 
whom the Association perhaps more than to any 
other one man owed its organization, and who 



for twenty-seven years had been identified with 
its administration, died in 1873. Like his dis- 
tinguished brother, Arthur Tappan, he was 
deeply interested in the antislavery missions 
which preceded the organization of the Associa- 
tion. He was prominent in the movement which 
rescued the Amistad captives, and which served 
so largely to arouse the nation to the arrogance 
and aggressions of the slave power. It was he, 
with the Rev. S. S. Jocelyn and Rev. Joshua 
Leavitt, who raised the funds to defend these 
captives in the courts. When at last they were 
released, John Quincy Adams, the old man elo- 
quent, took pleasure in recognizing the en- 
ergy and transcendent ability of Lewis Tap- 
pan towards the final success. By many Lewis 
Tappan was regarded as " a man of one idea," 
whose whole being was absorbed in the work of 
emancipation. He was far from that. His pas- 
tor, Henry Ward Beecher, at his funeral did not 
overstate the facts when he said, " He joined him- 
self to whatever was pronounced in morals or in 
religion, whatever was most aggressive, what- 
ever would be to him the mightiest attack upon 
the kingdom of Satan, whatever would carry for- 
ward best the kingdom of the Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. To these causes, whatever might 
be their humility, however feeble, he gave himself 



heart and soul with the personal influence and all 
the power of pecuniary influence which he could 
command." His frequent benefactions were 
large, and for years he gave his unrequited serv- 
ices as treasurer of the Association. Few per- 
sons had broader sympathies; he was the effi- 
cient friend of other missionary societies; he 
aided in the education of young men and in the 
endowment of colleges, and was personally active 
for the religious welfare of his fellow men. He 
lived to see his leading positions vindicated in the 
admissions of many who once most strenuously 
opposed them, and to realize some of the most 
cherished aims of his zealous life. 

Another of the heroic spirits of 1846 laid aside 
his armor in the last year of this second decade 
of new work in the South. The Rev. Simeon S. 
Jocelyn, who died in 1879, was a Puritan hero. 
In 1839 ne was the active chairman of the com- 
mittee to defend and protect the Amistad captives. 
He was prominent in the organization of the 
Association. For seven years he was its Record- 
ing Secretary, for ten out of the subsequent years, 
from 1853 to 1863, Corresponding Secretary 
with charge of the Home Department, and from 
that date to 1879, until his death, a member of the 
Executive Committee. A bold and determined 
man, but as gentle as he was brave and as cautious 



as he was intrepid. Said Dr. Strieby, who was 
much of the same spirit himself : — 

It is a great mistake to suppose that the bold and 
determined men who take front rank in great moral 
conflicts are destitute of kindly impulses. Mr. Jocelyn 
was utterly uncompromising where duty called, yet I 
have seldom known a man of more tender sympathies, 
of quicker, almost womanly, sensibility to sorrow or 
suffering. Nor are all such men, as is often imagined, 
so intent on pushing great reforms as to overlook the 
rights of others. Mr. Jocelyn was most scrupulous in 
regard to the claims of all men, even of his opponents. 
Nor are all such seemingly rash and headlong men lack- 
ing in caution. He was the most cautious man I ever 
knew. The marvel is that such a man could have risked 
reputation, property, and even life itself in an enter- 
prise so doubtful of success and beset with so many 
dangers to the peace of the church and the nation. 
The only explanation was in his clear perception 
through all glosses of the path of duty and the over- 
whelming impulse of conscience to pursue it in spite 
of all dangers. Of such stuff are moral heroes 

Mr. Jocelyn was born in 1799, and with a well- 
rounded life of fourscore years he inherited the 

" One generation goeth, and another genera- 
tion cometh." The last offices of loving regard 
had only been uttered when we hear from an- 
other of such like spirit and temper as to cause 



one to feel that the mantle of the departed had 
fallen on him. 

Rev. Henry Swift DeForest, a graduate of 
Yale, and subsequently an instructor in that col- 
lege, after a few years of successful ministry, had 
just accepted the presidency of Talladega College 
in Alabama. He wrote his reasons : — 

First, I am needed. This is a great work and the 
workmen are few. It is not here that men stand carpet- 
bag in hand waiting for a chance to preach. We have 
more of a field than we can occupy. On all sides comes 
up the Macedonian cry, " Come over and help us." I 
am often weary on Saturday, and poorly enough pre- 
pared for Sunday, but I am spared the anguish of not 
knowing where to go or what to do. Few would care 
for my shoes, but I hope to wear them myself and wear 
them here. 

Second, there is here perhaps an unsurpassed oppor- 
tunity for influencing men. I am not only a " home 
missionary," but also a foreign missionary to Africa, 
and that last with special facilities. I am master of the 
language, and do not work at the disadvantage of a 
half-learned and half-mastered tongue. Without the 
honors of a foreign missionary, I am also without many 
of his disadvantages. It is a double missionary field. 

Third, the most pressing work in our own country 
is here. As surely as in 1861 our national peril is in 
the South. Patriotism as well as humanity and Chris- 
tianity keep me here, and no campaigning in our recent 
war seemed more of a duty of loyalty than that in 
which I am now engaged. Certainly just now I would 



rather be here than in any other part of the universe of 
God. Tell our friends at the North that we do not 
need their sympathy but we do need their help. 

He was a good type of the workers of the 
Association in 1880. 

In 1 88 1 Tillotson Collegiate Institute at Aus- 
tin, Texas, was established and opened to stu- 
dents. It was named in honor of Rev. George J. 
Tillotson of Connecticut, whose generous con- 
tributions made it possible. 




The fluctuations of Southern sentiment regarding the 
work of the Association. — Favorable views. — Rev. 
A. G. Haygood, d.d. — Reaction. — The Glenn Bill in 
Georgia. — The two civilizations, one of righteousness 
and the other of force. — The color line in churches. — 
Caste prejudice. — Caste and social distinctions. — Back- 
ward glances. — Brave women. — Tribute of an eloquent 
negro to the women teachers of this period. 



IT is interesting to notice the fluctuations of 
Southern sentiment and the waves of popu- 
lar opinion regarding the work of the Asso- 
ciation among the colored people, as its methods 
and results had become better known. The fears 
that negro education would lead to danger were 
proved to be without foundation. The mission- 
ary magazine in 1881 reports the annual closing 
exercises of various institutions and uses these 
words with reference to the growing spirit of 
brotherhood between the North and the South : 

Perhaps the influence of our institutions upon the 
leading minds of the South, and especially upon those 
interested in the popular education, never was so great 
as now. Governors of southern states, mayors of 
cities, presidents of southern colleges, representatives 
of the pulpit, the bar, and the press attend our anni- 
versary exercises and enter heartily and with apprecia- 
tion into the spirit of the work. In this we find much 
occasion for thanking God and taking courage. It is 
fidelity to the principles that have actuated the Asso- 
ciation for nearly forty years that is winning the hearts 
of the people, and every year confirms the conviction 



that we have only to press forward in order to achieve 
the best results for the whole southern portion of our 

An ex-mayor of the city of Atlanta, at the 
dedication of the First Congregational Church, 
said that " the thrift, orderly habits, and acqui- 
sition of property " in a certain portion of that 
city were " mainly due to the school and the 
church of The American Missionary Associa- 
tion." As an illustration of the favorable feeling, 
one among many, the Memphis Daily Appeal, the 
Daily Avalanche, and the Public Ledger devoted 
a large space to the reports of the anniversary 
exercises of Le Moyne Institute, with accom- 
panying editorial commendations and apprecia- 
tions, from one of which we quote : — 

The feeling in the city in favor of universal educa- 
tion was never stronger than it is now. This is plainly 
shown by the interest everywhere manifested in the 
Le Moyne Institute for negroes which gave so enjoy- 
able an entertainment Monday night. A number of 
prominent citizens who were present expressed the 
greatest surprise and astonishment, and the opinion was 
general that the inculcation of ideas such as those of 
which the graduates seemed possessed was bound to 
do good to them and by reflection upon the whole 

Said an old planter, " I attended the exhibition 
out of pure curiosity, never dreaming that it 
would impress me as it has done. I have always 



scouted the idea of negro education, and I may 
say I have been its enemy. I am perfectly will- 
ing to give way now, however." These were 
common sentiments among the better class of 
Southern people twenty years after our work 
began in all the states. 

Nor must we fail to recognize at this period 
the noble impulse given to this friendly Southern 
sentiment, and the truly Christian sympathy 
given to " our brother in black " and those who 
were seeking the education and elevation of the 
children of the freedmen in the person and work 
of the Rev. A. G. Haygood, d.d. A gallant ex- 
Confederate soldier, — a Southerner by birth and 
breeding, and the son of a slaveholder, brought 
up in the wealthy planting section of Georgia, — 
he entered upon his, at first, self-appointed task 
in behalf of negro education as a mere private, 
a volunteer in the ranks where he found so many 
noble workers. But his knowledge of the negro, 
of his capacity and his needs, and the best methods 
of reaching practical educational results, soon 
marked him for the high position to which he was 
called as the trusted confidential agent of the 
Slater Fund, bequeathed by a benevolent man of 
Connecticut. Already in the first year of the 
fund this good, strong man found himself plead- 
ing on every possible occasion for the practical 



system of education so long pursued by The 
American Missionary Association. Like all 
prophets, Dr. Haygood was far in advance of his 
time, but he did not fail to find within the hearts 
of thoughtful Southern people a sense of brother- 
hood with the lowly ones of another race and a 
desire to do justly by them. His visits to the 
schools of the Association carried with them 
hope to the pupils who were struggling up, and 
his addresses were full of Christian teaching and 
human sympathy. Professors and teachers alike 
greeted his presence as that of a forerunner who 
brought the assurance that the morning of the 
day had come when the North and South should 
see eye to eye and should be found in emulation 
and in happy cooperation to solve the hard prob- 
lem which was the inheritance of slavery and for 
which North and South were both responsible. 
" The negroes," said Dr. Haygood, " need edu- 
cated Christianity, and they must have Christian- 
ized education to get it. This the state does not 
give, and cannot give. To achieve this most de- 
sirable and necessary result the schoolhouse and 
the church must work together. There must be 
Bibles in the schools that are to train teachers 
among this people, and there must be Christian 
men and women in them who both teach and prac- 
tice religion. Your Association is doing this 



most necessary work on a very broad scale. You 
are raising up in these schools men and women 
who can teach and who must teach the children 
of their people. I say ' must,' for Christianized 
education must by its instruction and directing 
impulses perpetuate and diffuse itself." " This 
problem," continued Dr. Haygood, " cannot be 
solved by legislation. It must be Christian 
schools and the Church of God." 

That was a great heart as well as a wise head 
which a quarter of a century ago, when memories 
of the bitter conflict were so fresh and the diffi- 
culties of brotherhood were so many, could quote 
from the platform of an antislavery society the 
words of a great leader in antislavery days, Dr. 
Leonard Bacon, of New Haven, and, endorsing 
them, say : — 

One word concerning the future of the Society; 
that word is conciliation, conciliation by meekness, by 
love, by patient continuance in well doing. The field 
is wide open for schools and for the preaching of the 
gospel — two great forces operating as one for funda- 
mental reconstruction. In both these lines of effort 
the work of conciliation, conciliation of the South to 
the North, and to the restored and beneficent Union; 
conciliation of the races to each other, white to black 
and black to white; conciliation of contending sects 
opposed with traditional bigotries to the simplicity of 
the truth as it is in Christ Jesus. 



" Thomas Jefferson," added Dr. Haygood„ 
" who in 1782 said that the two races equally free 
cannot live in the same government was not a 
prophet. Leonard Bacon was. But this work 
of fundamental reconstruction is a slow process. 
It will take generations. Lifting up a nation or 
a race is a slow process. Wherefore, the great- 
est necessity for wisdom and patience in your 
work. Certainly you find more sympathy and 
more of the spirit of cooperation than you found 
ten years ago. You have learned your work 
better, and we of the South have learned perfectly 
its value. Your methods are good. They are 
yielding happy results." 

These were the gracious, grateful words of a 
Christian patriot, a large-minded, great-hearted, 
and whole-souled man. Would that he might 
have lived on ! for such men were few, and soon 
were more needed than ever. What a difference 
there would have been for the honor of the state 
he loved so well, for the honor of the nation which 
held his greater love, could such a presence and 
such a voice represent both his state and nation 
in the United States Senate with his pleadings 
for reverence of law, and for justice and mercy 
to " our brother in black," in place of the utter- 
ances of hate and bitterness which we are now 
humbled to hear ! 



But the progress of mankind in its moral evo- 
lution does not come to its fruitage with the first 
blossoming of promise. This kindly appreciation 
and the generous expression of it was the very 
thing to stir prejudices anew and reexcite the 
oppositions of those who objected to the elevation 
of the negro. With the realizations of advance- 
ment and the possibilities of intellectual strength 
came a mighty wave of reaction on the part of 
lesser minds and lesser souls always everywhere 
in the majority. It was at this time that our 
records abound in allusions to the " infamous 
Glenn bill " in the legislature of Georgia, when 
the agitation began which removed Southern sup- 
port from Atlanta University, and which in due 
time reached the legislatures of other states, and 
deprived other institutions of the cooperation 
which their good results had previously secured. 

There had been no change in the kindly meth- 
ods and good-will of the Association. The re- 
action was indeed the natural result of its suc- 
cesses, the constitution of the public in the South 
being what it was. The class that " see not and 
hear not, neither understand," but who have 
votes, often bring discouragements and disap- 
pointments, and make the progress of others 
apparently slow and fitful. In this reaction 
the two civilizations which in the Civil War 
15 225 


had their struggle for mastery came once more 
into view. 

That for which the Association stood in 1846, 
which it had unswervingly maintained, and which 
has never been reversed, whether or not it has 
always been able to hold it against specific trans- 
gressions, is based upon righteousness. Its chief 
doctrine next to the obligations which find their 
supreme expression in the love and holiness of 
God is the brotherhood of man. This asks for 
equality of rights, for justice in all human rela- 
tions ; freedom for every soul to work out all that 
is possible in the way of human good and achieve- 
ment. It especially calls for the elevation of the 
moral, intellectual, and spiritual in man to the 
supreme place. 

The other civilization, built on force, has its 
doctrine of inferiority and superiority. It 
stratifies humanity: the weaker must serve the 
stronger. Might shall be the equivalent for right. 
This civilization, if it is worthy of such a name, 
flies in the face of the teachings of our Lord, who 
said, " Ye know that they who are accounted 
to rule over the Gentiles lord it over them; and 
their great ones exercise authority over them. 
But it is not so among you: but whosoever 
would become great among you, shall be your 
minister; and whosoever would be first among 



you, shall be servant of all." This civilization 
of force, often dominant among imperfectly de- 
veloped peoples like the ignorant masses of the 
South, creates burdens grievous to be borne 
by those better and wiser souls whose lot is 
cast in locations where appeals can be made to 
prejudice and to passion. Confounding power 
with right, the civilization built on force may 
be dominant for a time, but it will pass away. 
The lower will give way to the higher in our 
country. The civilization of Christ will be the 
final one. Through what experiences this shall 
come to pass no one can foretell. Otherwise 
the nation must fall into the long procession of 
those that have already proved their falsity to 
God in their dishonor and destruction. The duty 
remains for all who wear the name of Christ to 
stand by and for his teaching, without wavering. 
This civilization of force as it began to realize 
the development of latent power in the graduates 
of higher institutions of learning and their aspi- 
rations for the privileges and duties that a sense 
of true manhood brings, started the agitation 
against schools with the taking motto, " Teach 
the negro to work," the underlying interpreta- 
tion of which was, teach the negro nothing but 
work. Out of this attitude of a feeling and pur- 
pose which overrode the real wisdom of nobler 



thought in the South came the necessity for the 
Association to proclaim anew its principles and 
restate its reasons for them. We were not, as it 
was charged, seeking to change or regulate so- 
ciety anywhere. We were not called to do this. 
Our distinct work was and is to bring in the king- 
dom of heaven in the spirit of the gospel and to 
inculcate the principles of that kingdom, a king- 
dom of faith in God and good-will to man. 

Perhaps it was out of this atmosphere of re- 
newed discussion that the agitation of the " color 
line " in churches grew. Here again the Asso- 
ciation had no disposition to agitate questions 
which excited the prejudices of the Southern 
people; far from it. It had no wish or purpose 
to force the races together in any relation; but 
in church work, under the care of the Associa- 
tion, it was only consistent to maintain that a 
Christian church ought to stand ready to fellow- 
ship any one of any race whom Christ fellow- 
ships, and that it should turn no one away from 
its communion because of his race or color, or 
because his father or his mother had been a slave. 
The Association stoutly maintained that there 
was no reason which would meet the teachings 
of Christ, why there should be entire state or local 
organizations of churches which refused to fel- 
lowship churches the membership of which dif- 



fered in race. The Association could not be true 
to its history, or true to its convictions, or suc- 
cessfully face the bitter prejudices of Jew and 
Gentile with the broad invitation, " Whosoever 
will, may come," and accept any less interpre- 
tation of Christianity. The churches planted, 
and in most cases partly sustained, as missionary 
churches by the Association, appealed to it to 
stand by them in their cry for this recognition of 
Christian manhood. 

This accounts for the reconsideration and dis- 
cussions of the question of caste to which much 
attention is given in our records of this period. 
Dr. Strieby pleaded against it with all his soul. 
From his heart came the words : " The Associa- 
tion was born an opponent of slavery. Amid 
poverty, sneers, and reproaches from the best of 
men as well as from the worst of men, it pressed 
forward in its opposition till the glorious end 
came. It must oppose caste as it did slavery. It 
began its work as the avowed enemy of caste. 
Caste prejudice is sin. It hinders the progress 
of its victims. It shuts up the avenues of trades, 
professions, schools, and churches through which 
alone those who have been emancipated from 
slavery can escape from ignorance and degrada- 
tion. If they rise it must be in spite of all the 
obstacles that caste can throw in their way. Here 



is a call for an appeal to conscience." Dr. Strieby 
never questioned for a moment that the power 
of the living God which had destroyed slavery 
would be the one power in the land that would 
finally be irresistible. He was absolutely sure 
that the barriers of caste would eventually go 
down before that power. 

At the same time, there was no failure to draw 
the line sharply between caste and social distinc- 
tions. The cry for social equality had become 
a battle-cry. The Association insisted that caste 
and social distinctions are by no means identical. 
They rest on different principles. Companionship 
has its own qualifications. Social distinctions will 
take care of themselves. We have no mission to 
prevent the existence of classes in society. Classes 
will doubtless always exist, here and hereafter. 
Companionship is one thing, but caste is another. 
It means special class privilege. It excludes 
people from common rights and privileges. It 
degrades people on the ground of race or color. 
It denies equal rights, civil, political, and reli- 
gious. It is seen in its worst forms when it has 
the consent of Christian gatherings, and when 
it appears in religious bodies. Christ, who linked 
his life to the lowly, had his sympathetic com- 
panionships, but the spirit of caste never was his. 
Those who wear his name decline his spirit when 



they proclaim the fatherhood of God and refuse 
the brotherhood of man. In his name the Asso- 
ciation has always protested — and, please God, 
always will protest — against imposing on a race 
the weight of an impassable caste, so that an es- 
tablished ruling class shall direct a permanent 
serving class, or that Christians of one race shall 
deny fellowship to that of another. 

But while these contentions for principles were 
going on the work was also going on. The Asso- 
ciation in its annual reports appears to have had 
a reminiscent tendency. It loved to look back- 
ward, but in no sense did it ever live retrospec- 
tively. If it took frequent occasions to review the 
past it was only to gain fresh courage and purpose 
for the future. It seems to have been practically 
quoting the song of the Psalmist when he said, 
" The Lord hath been mindful of us ; he will 
bless us." The past was the pledge and the ear- 
nest of the time to come. One of its backward 
glances at this period brought out the fact that 
up to this time not less than three thousand differ- 
ent missionary laborers had been enlisted in the 
service of the Association, and that fully two 
thousand of them had been women. What a 
multitude of gospelers for two decades! It was 
found also that the time when the number of the 
missionary workers ran highest was the Ku Klux 



period, when the brave women could stand in 
places where men could not live. 

It is well to remember how in Mississippi at 
midnight one of these heroines was waited on by 
a Ku Klux company in masks and gowns. After 
a hasty robing she was obliged to open the door. 

The ruffian crew were abashed and ashamed 
as their leader exclaimed in surprise, " Why, you 
are a lady ! " They could offer no harm to a 
defenseless lady, but they gave her twenty-four 
hours in which to leave, notifying her that they 
would be around to see that she had obeyed. 
" Low down fellows," the citizens said. " No," 
she replied, " such men don't wear fine top-boots 
and have an address like theirs." The lone 
woman surrendered to their demands for her 
departure, saying that she scorned to tell them 
that though she was an Illinois girl she was the 
granddaughter of Rev. Dr. Allen, of Huntsville, 
Alabama. Another woman's school at Austin, 
Texas, was broken into by roughs. Then the post 
commander sent a guard to stand by day at her 
school door and escort her home at night and 
back to her school in the morning. She held her 
post. At another place in Alabama the Ku Klux 
Klan drew up in line before the lady teacher's 
castle of a schoolroom, and fired a volley of beans 
and shot through her windows on each side of 



the chair where she was sitting. This delicate, 
fearless principal, graduate of Mount Holyoke, 
did not run away, but remained, developing a 
flourishing school for more than a score of years 
until age forbade her to teach longer. Another, 
having her school in North Carolina in an old 
Confederate gun factory, when a man offered to 
be one of twenty to put her on the cars by force 
if necessary, and send her away, said, " I was 
sent by The American Missionary Association, 
and when that says ' Go,' I will, and not before." 
She also remained for many years and never lost 
her courage. 

These are not exceptional illustrations of the 
greatness of heart and devotion to service whose 
records are in the unprinted annals of the As- 
sociation. They went as missionaries to en- 
lighten the ignorant, to lift up the needy, to 
preach the gospel to the poor, to bring them all 
to Christ, quietly, patiently, lovingly, and stead- 
ily, as they had a right to do, and as they felt 
it their duty to do, — young women of education, 
of refinement and culture, — nobly they fulfilled 
their mission. 

No words of appreciation could unduly ex- 
press their worthiness. A colored man, an emi- 
nent type of his race, from a sense of good re- 
ceived, wrote in his eloquent tribute to them : — 



A worthier band has never furnished theme or song 
for sage or bard. These noble women left homes, 
their friends, their social ties, and all that they held 
dear, to go to the far South to labor among the re- 
cently emancipated slaves. Their courage, their self- 
sacrificing devotion, sincerity of purpose, and purity 
of motive, and their unshaken faith in God were their 
pass keys to the hearts of those for whom they came 
to labor. They were sustained by an unbounded en- 
thusiasm and zeal amounting almost to fanaticism. 
No mercenary or sordid motive attaches to their fair 
names. They gave the highest proof that the nine- 
teenth century, at least, has afforded, that Christianity 
has not yet degenerated into a dead formula and 
barren intellectualism, but it is a living, vital power. 
Their works do follow them. What colored man is 
there in all this land who has not felt the uplifting 
effect of their labors? Their monument is builded 
in the hopes of a race struggling upward from igno- 
rance to enlightenment, from corruption to purity of 
life. These are they who sowed the seed of intelli- 
gence in the soil of ignorance, and planted the rose of 
virtue in the garden of dishonor and shame. It is 
said that gratitude is the fairest flower which sheds 
its perfume in the human heart. As long as the human 
heart beats in grateful response to benefits received, 
these women shall not want a monument of living 
ebony and bronze. 

" Those women which labored with me in the 
gospel," said the apostle, " with other my fellow 
laborers whose names are in the book of life." 



Bureau of Woman's Work. — Educational and evan- 
gelistic work in the hill-country of Kentucky. — Williams- 
burg School and Church. — Anti-caste pledges given. — 
An exciting incident. — Church organized at Williams- 
burg. — Northern capital in Southern mountains. — 
Magic towns and great promises for future commercial 
centers. — Colored schools and institutions pleading for 
expansion. — Church extension. — Concentration as a 
policy. — Death of District Secretary G. D. Pike. — 
Death of Rev. E. A. Ware, President of Atlanta Univer- 
sity. — Death of Corresponding Secretary James Powell, 
d.d. — An earnest life. 



IN 1883, with a view to some partial recog- 
nition of the large share which educated 
Christian women had in this work from the 
beginning at Hampton, Virginia, the Bureau of 
Woman's Work had been organized. Its main 
purpose was to give Christian women fuller in- 
formation as to ways of cooperation on their 
part, and to assist in devising plans for help; to 
promote correspondence with Sunday-schools 
and missionary societies which might wish to 
undertake work of a special character ; in short, 
to further missionary interests among women in 
such ways as might present themselves. Miss 
D. E. Emerson, who had had large experience 
as a teacher in the field, and who subsequently 
was the efficient assistant of the corresponding 
secretary, was appointed to this work. 

It was at this time, also, that particular atten- 
tion was called to the pitiable condition of much 
of the mountain country inhabited largely by peo- 
ple of European descent who in the movements 
of civilization had been passed by and whose in- 



tellectual, spiritual, and material poverty pre- 
sented a strong appeal to Christian sympathy. 

The popular impression was that the Associa- 
tion was particularly organized to labor among 
people with dark skins. Quite otherwise, its mis- 
sion was to do Christian work among the needy 
without reference to race distinctions, its special 
inspiration being to carry on this without com- 
plicity with slavery and without the prejudices 
begotten of slavery. It made, and makes, dis- 
tinct appeals for peoples of different races only 
as a convenient classification. Its thought 
towards all is that of a common humanity — to 
remember the bond of brotherhood, and the de- 
mand for Christian help. 

In view of the deplorable ignorance and the 
evils flowing from this among the mountain peo- 
ple, a special fund in 1884 was asked for " to 
carry on educational and evangelistic work in the 
mountain regions of Kentucky, Tennessee, and 
the adjacent states." 

A special missionary in the service of the As- 
sociation reported Williamsburg, Kentucky, as a 
place of special need where a Christian school on 
an anti-caste basis could be planted with great 
benefit to a large and surrounding region in great 
destitution. The town was sixty-seven years old, 
yet it had never had a church edifice; nor had 



the county with a population of fourteen thou- 
sand ever had a church edifice finished and dedi- 
cated to the worship of God. There were few 
schools in the country around, and what there 
were could not be considered as worthy of the 
name. In Williamsburg a tasteful church was 
erected. An academy building followed, and able 
and experienced teachers were put in charge. 
When it came time for these two buildings to be 
dedicated, the executive committee was repre- 
sented by Dr. William Hayes Ward, and the As^ 
sociation also by Secretary Powell and Superin- 
tendent Roy. The church and school were dedi- 
cated to the service of God for the maintenance 
and spread of a free gospel and Christian educa- 
tion. Special emphasis was placed upon the fact 
that over the entrance to these edifices was writ- 
ten, " Whosoever will may come." This was 
emphasized because in a country where popular 
sentiment might otherwise close the doors to 
some upon a caste theory, it was felt that silence 
regarding that wrong would itself be wrong. The 
principles upon which the mission of the Associ- 
ation rested, and upon which it had entered the 
mountain country with its funds for the support 
of its institutions were made prominent at the 

The school soon was crowded with pupils eager 


to receive its privileges. But suddenly a cloud 
the size of the face of a colored child was suffi- 
cient to shut out the light of the Dayspring from 
on high. A lad with a dark skin asked for ad- 
mittance. Letters came to New York with re- 
monstrances. It would never do. Could the 
Association have meant what it said at the dedi- 
cation, or was it simply hypocrisy and a pious 
fraud? The answer of the Association flew as 
fast as lightning could travel, " Admit all appli- 
cants irrespective of color" There was no time- 
serving about that telegram. It was simple hon- 
esty; and when other tests of the sincerity and 
truthfulness of its principles arise there are but 
two ways to meet them ; either fairly and openly 
to disown the principles and relegate them to 
the receptacles of errors which once passed for 
truth, or to honestly live up to them. To claim 
to hold them, and yet to disown them, is not 

Following the dedication of a church and school 
at Williamsburg, several churches in that general 
region were erected. If they have not been alto- 
gether successful, perhaps a sufficient reason may 
be found in the lack of members. The safe way 
to develop churches is to secure at least a nucleus 
of earnest, devoted Christians who are willing to 
sacrifice for a church and to stand by it in its 



struggles. To erect church buildings without 
this essential is to have a body without a soul. 
Where the conditions of success existed the 
churches have lived and are living. 

The attention given to the development of 
schools and churches in the Southern mountains 
became quite a distinctive feature. As the rail- 
ways pushed through the gaps of the mighty 
mountain wall, which has so long fronted the 
forces of modern progress, Northern capital had 
eagerly entered to develop the hidden wealth of 
the hills in coal, iron, and timber. The people 
who had long been passed by, and who remained 
in this new period in their history as poor as they 
had ever been, yet began to realize some of the 
reasons for their backward conditions. The 
schools and churches introduced by the Associa- 
tion were no small foundations for the new hopes 
and new life that had to some degree been awak- 
ened by the recent commercial activities. But 
here also great caution and wisdom were needed 
against new enterprises which were exploited by 
prospectors and promoters without substantial 
basis. Towns and cities were to spring into being 
and importance, — and did so on paper, — and 
all of them were calling for churches, and many 
of them for " colleges." To go slowly when 
magic towns were clamoring for immediate action 
16 241 


was often felt, by those excited by extraordinary 
and exaggerated promises, to be insufficiently 
sympathetic with the pressing demands of the 
hour, but as the years passed on and the syndi- 
cates collapsed, and the places that were certain 
to become great commercial centers did not even- 
tuate, the careful regard for such churches and 
schools as had reason for continued existence be- 
came justified. The Association was not obliged 
to retreat from unfortunate experiments. 

Meanwhile the institutions founded particu- 
larly for negro people were reported year by year 
to the benevolent people who were sustaining 
them. Berea, Hampton, Fisk, Atlanta, Talla- 
dega, Tougaloo, Straight, and, last, Tillotson 
were each asking for more room and larger facil- 
ities. The institutions classed as " Normal " 
were Avery at Charleston, Le Moyne at Mem- 
phis, Gregory at Wilmington, Lewis at Macon, 
Emerson at Mobile, Beach at Savannah, Lexing- 
ton in Kentucky, Storrs at Atlanta, Trinity at 
Athens, Alabama, Warner at Jonesboro, Brewer 
at Greenwood, South Carolina, Dorchester at Mc- 
intosh, and Burrell at Selma. Williamsburg in 
Kentucky was the sole school in the mountain 
country which had attained to this classification. 
Ten schools classified as Normal, founded and for 
some years maintained by the Association, were 



no longer on its rolls. Seven of them were sold 
to boards of education in the cities in which they 
were located and were continued under their 
auspices. Three had been closed from lack of 
funds to properly maintain them. 

Twenty-five years had gone into our history 
when the Association reported under its care in 
the South one hundred and twelve churches with 
eighty-nine pastors, thirty of whom were white 
and from the North. The transitional move- 
ments of the colored people often made it neces- 
sary also to take from the rolls in view of their 
unpromising conditions the lifeless churches 
which began with hopefulness and which had 
lost their membership. This could not be pre- 
vented and could not always be explained. Some- 
times it seemed to constituents that this exceed- 
ingly important part of missionary service pro- 
ceeded slowly. It did, and necessarily, yet the 
gain which was steady was actual, and the 
churches which really stood for their name com- 
pared well with young churches in the West. 
Several had come into independent self-support; 
these, usually, where our schools had made this 
possible. At the same time it came to be under- 
stood more fully by those intelligently interested 
in the Association, that the distinction between 
school work and church work differed more in 



name and form than it did in reality. The su- 
preme thought of each was to bring souls to 
Christ and to educate for Christ, and the schools 
were doing much work usually done in other than 
missionary churches. The influence of the daily 
Biblical and ethical teaching upon young people, 
and the organized meetings for prayer and wor- 
ship under the leading and example of conse- 
crated teachers was most fruitful for the ultimate 
evangelism of the colored people. 

The specific theological departments, which 
existed in all our chartered institutions, had 
proved to be a gracious and successful agency in 
sending forth a more capable and more worthy 
ministry into other communions as well as our 
own. So far it appears to have been a good part 
of our mission to leaven with our teaching and 
to help churches which sadly needed aid, all of 
which did not count in our denominational sta- 
tistics, rather than to multiply churches which 
should wear our name but not show forth our 
principles or our character. Our most permanent 
successes for churches were where we were suc- 
cessful in laboring to displace ignorance with 
intelligence in our schools. Churches could have 
been planted more rapidly if the Association 
would have yielded to the temptation to plant and 
support them for the name of it. Come-outers 



from other denominations, where there had been 
church difficulties, with uneducated and self- 
elected preachers, often turned to the Association, 
ready to take our denominational name as soon 
as they could successfully pronounce it. En- 
gaged, however, as we were in a serious effort to 
reconstruct the religious life of a people, the Asso- 
ciation, while steadily seeking to build good foun- 
dations against the time to come, has felt it a 
duty to guard against hopeless expenditures 
which did not promise permanence and purity. 

The Association had largely centralized its 
educational work in six chartered higher insti- 
tutions and in fourteen normal and graded 
schools. Its rural common schools numbered 
thirty-six. The pupils in these Southern schools 
totaled eight thousand eight hundred and twenty- 

The year 1885 was marked by particular be- 
reavement in the death of Dr. G. D. Pike, a long 
time District Secretary, well known and wel- 
comed in the churches which he was wont to visit 
with the tidings from the fields at home and from 
Africa. Dr. Pike was a man of vigorous intel- 
lect, strong faith, and undivided devotion. At 
the age of fifty-four years he had put the best 
part of an earnest life into the service for the 
people emancipated from slavery. 



In this same year the Rev. E. A. Ware, Presi- 
dent of Atlanta University, was suddenly stricken 
down by disease of the heart in his forty-eighth 
year. President Ware was graduated from Yale 
College in 1863, and began his work in the South 
the year following the close of the war. For a 
full period of nineteen years — with the excep- 
tion of a single year of rest enforced by exhaus- 
tion and physical needs — he toiled with signal 
devotion in this chosen field with most gratifying 
and remarkable results. He was active in secur- 
ing the foundation of Atlanta University and its 
development ; he witnessed its steady growth and 
prosperity from the beginning. In consecrating 
his mind with all its culture, and his heart with 
all its affectionate strength to the work of the 
elevation of the colored people, President Ware 
set a noble example of sacrifice for the cause of 
Christ. The original stamp placed by him upon 
the University will long remain to testify to his 
great life. 

The death of Rev. James Powell, d.d., Corre- 
sponding Secretary of the Association, on Christ- 
mas Day, his birthday, in 1887, was deeply felt 
and profoundly mourned by all who knew him. 
Dr. Powell was born in Wales, December 25, 
1847. At an early age he came to this country, 
and partly by his own exertions and partly by the 



help of friends whom he had won to himself by 
his happy disposition and evident indications of 
exceptional future usefulness, he obtained a gen- 
erous education, graduating from Dartmouth 
College in 1866 and from Andover Theological 
Seminary in 1869. He was immediately settled 
as pastor of the Congregational Church at New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, his only pastorate, until 
1873, when he was appointed District Secretary 
of the Association and was soon selected to take 
charge of the Western Department with his 
office in Chicago. Here he remained for nearly 
ten years. In 1883 he was elected Assistant 
Corresponding Secretary, and in 1885, Associate 
Corresponding Secretary with special supervision 
of the collecting field. 

Dr. Powell was a magnetic orator, brilliant and 
persuasive. Impassioned and imaginative, he 
was yet characterized by a cautious judgment and 
excellent administrative gifts. His genial nature, 
his warm and devoted Christian character, won 
all hearts. He was a prince of good fellowship 
and full of good humor. No one with him ever 
had a dull hour. One of the most companionable 
of men, he carried his heart on his sleeve. He 
was not capable of a mean act. With strong 
convictions he knew how to stand firm in his 



Moved very largely by his urgent and repeated 
solicitations, the writer of this history became in 
1885 officially associated with him, attracted by 
his generous sympathy and his missionary zeal. 
He was all that anticipation had hoped for and 
more. Not old in years when he died, he had yet 
lived a long life, — a life of grand sacrifice, of 
patient and undeviating love for the oppressed, 
whose necessities had become his own until he 
gave to them his life which Christ had saved. 
The real glory of his consecration cannot be 
chronicled in these pages, but the shining name 
in God's Book of Life in the days of God's remem- 
brance will stand out like a radiant star in the 
heavens. The influences which he set in motion 
" shall like a river run and broader flow." 


Secretary James Powell, D.D. 


Financial experiences. — A new generation of teachers. 

— Conflicting thought of Southern white people respect- 
ing the emancipated race. — Transitional phases of life 
among the colored people. — Effect upon church life and 
stability. — The great gift of Daniel Hand of Connecti- 
cut.— His " Deed of Trust." — Sketch of his life. — Great 
enlargement in school work. — Twenty-one advanced 
schools added. — Higher standards of studies. — Fer- 
ment in the Southern opinion and hostility to negro prog- 
ress. — Appeals at the Annual Meetings of the Asso- 
ciation. — Dr. Charles H. Richards, Dr. Lyman Abbott, 
and others. — True and false estimates. — Dr. Strieby. 

— Death in 1899. — The Association's ideals stated by 
Rev. C. A. Patton, d.d. 



DURING these later years, when the work 
moved steadily forward, developing on 
permanent foundations, the experiences 
which belong to all voluntary benevolent work 
kept alert those who were responsible for its ad- 
ministration. One year would begin with the 
jubilation, " We are free, all debts are paid, and 
we start anew with courage," and in another 
year, with the same management and care, the 
captions of the " financial condition " were clothed 
in deep mourning. Editorials of The Ameri- 
can Missionary would be " cheered by the gener- 
ous benevolences which are reporting them- 
selves," only to be followed by " great regrets in 
view of diminishing receipts." The yearly finan- 
cial reports as we review them remind one of 
the children's seesaw with its recurring ups and 
downs. The apostle who said, " I know both how 
to be abased, and I know how to abound," little 
thought what a text of common and trying expe- 
rience he was uttering for a missionary society. 



It is the transition from gladness to sadness that 
tests the souls of missionary managers. An even 
success, over which there is no call for special 
exultation and no reason for disquieting discour- 
agement, is an ideal yet to be realized, but to be 
upon the Mountain of Transfiguration with heav- 
enly visions of the blessed to-day, only to be hur- 
ried down into the valley of humiliation to- 
morrow, with a strenuousness which is in painful 
contrast to the hopeful ascent, to find the sun gone 
down and the darkness everywhere is a cross 
which is no easier to bear because the experience 
is frequent. Nevertheless, the hymn which de- 
clares that " some way or other the Lord will 
provide " has much more of truth than poetry to 
commend it, and we find that year by year the 
schools open and increase in strength, the teachers 
do not fail to appear, and do not fail to bring a 
blessing to those who hunger for light on their 
dark and rugged paths. The churches grow in 
number and many of them in grace ; the preachers 
are found to minister to them, and many with 
final justification for their faith and patience; 
and so the education of the needy people goes on 
— the education of the soul, the mind, and the 
body. The story of it all can never be told, but 
the accomplishment is visible in part. 

A new generation of teachers, with few excep- 


tions, has now taken the places of those who began 
the work. Then Christian men and women were 
filled with pity for the poor negroes, shown by a 
movement of missionaries and of money that was 
wonderful ; but we have now come to a time when 
the enthusiasm peculiar to the early period has 
passed, when with the coming of a new genera- 
tion this service must go on by the forces born of 
a fixed conviction and a consecration of unques- 
tioning faith — a time of patient work, steady 
giving, and constant praying. 

It is in this last decade of the history of our 
Southern work that we trace more evidently the 
conflicting thought of the white people of the 
South as to the attitude which should be main- 
tained towards the emancipated race. The 
prophets and seers, the apostles of a day of right- 
eousness towards all classes and conditions of 
men, began during this period to find a growing 
resistance to their appeals for human rights. The 
appreciation which the work for the elevation of 
the negro was gaining from large-minded and 
thoughtful people in the South was the hopeful 
and cheering feature, but the increasing expres- 
sions of opposition gave concern for the future. 
So far as the results of thirty years were consid- 
ered there was every encouragement. Beyond 
question, the hopes of the fathers had been more 

2 53 


than justified in those who had gone forth from 
schools and churches to take to others the bless- 
ings which they had received. But it was increas- 
ingly evident that this very success of those edu- 
cated in the higher institutions of the South for 
colored people excited the hostility of a large class 
of white people, and did not win the favor of an- 
other large and influential class. This spirit 
which was unsympathetic combined with that 
which was hostile, while it occasioned both regret 
and anxiety, brought no change of our purpose 
and no thought of relaxing our efforts. 

We have come to a time when the transitional 
phase of the colored people has become particu- 
larly marked. Not only those who were supposed 
to be practically permanent in rural districts, but 
also those who had flocked to the large towns and 
cities are coming and going. The tendency to 
drift into cities, due in part to the better school 
facilities which the cities afford, presents impor- 
tant educational and evangelistic suggestions. 
Under conditions which make for unrest in rural 
sections, localities which at one time appeal for 
help at a later date appear to be well-nigh 
deserted. This seldom affects happily located 
schools to any great degree, inasmuch as there 
are more who wish to attend them than can well 
be cared for. 



The transitional conditions, however, are more 
likely to add to the uncertainty of life and growth 
of rural churches, and make the problem of evan- 
gelization among those who greatly need it in- 
creasingly difficult and sometimes disappointing. 
Added to the fact that our more sober methods 
of church life and our insistence upon purity and 
Christian integrity demand an intelligence and 
elevation of character seldom realized apart from 
permanent educational influences, we find that the 
growth of hopeful churches resembles the oak, 
which asks time for root and branches rather than 
the cotton-plant with its quick and short life. But 
with the constant leaven of education our ideas 
and ideals are becoming better known to the 
younger generation, and we may hope for a safe 
and healthful increase of churches like those 
which have already proved their vitality, and 
which in many places are exerting positive Chris- 
tian influence. We accentuate the fact, therefore, 
that the mere statistics of evangelism which ap- 
pear under the caption of " Church Work " do 
not at all adequately represent the leavening 
power of the gospel, which is constantly and 
widely felt among the colored people. The lead- 
ing and example of consecrated teachers day by 
day in their close relationships with life when 
character is forming and is most susceptible, make 



our schools like our churches, centers of redemp- 
tive power. 

This period was particularly memorable in 
the reception by the Association of the largest 
gift from a living contributor ever made, up to 
that time, to a missionary society. The writer 
well recalls the day in October, 1888, when the 
Hon. Luzon B. Morris, afterwards governor of 
Connecticut, the trusted legal and financial ad- 
viser of Daniel Hand of Guilford, entered the 
office to transfer securities to the amount of " one 
million eight hundred and ninety-four dollars 
and twenty-five cents," to be designated " The 
Daniel Hand Educational Fund for Colored 
People." The gift was one of mature delibera- 
tion, made after careful examination of the work 
of the Association extending through a period of 
many years ; made during the lifetime it avoided 
the possibility of future litigation. It was be- 
stowed upon a race with whose wants Mr. Hand 
had become thoroughly conversant. It was given 
to a society with whose history, amid obloquy and 
distrust, he was perfectly familiar, and it was 
made a permanent fund, — the income only to be 
available, — thus insuring its perpetual useful- 
ness. The generous giver, formerly a merchant 
in the South, had acquired his fortune there, and 
personally knew of the ignorance and needs of 



the colored people. The Deed of Trust was as 
follows : 


Memorandum of Agreement made this 20th 
day of October, a. d., 1888, between Daniel Hand 
of Guilford, in the State of Connecticut, and the 
American Missionary Association of the city, 
county, and State of New York. 

The said Daniel Hand, desiring to establish a 
permanent fund, the income of which shall be 
used for the purpose of educating needy and indi- 
gent colored people of African descent, residing, 
or who may hereafter reside in the recent slave 
states of the United States of America, sometimes 
called the Southern States ; meaning those states 
wherein slavery was recognized by law in the 
year a. d., 1861, and in consideration of the prom- 
ises and undertakings of the said American Mis- 
sionary Association, hereinafter set forth, does 
hereby give, transfer, and deliver unto the said 
American Missionary Association the following 
bonds and property in trust, viz.: [Here follows 
a list of the property transferred, amounting at 
par value to $1,000,894.25. The market value is 
more than that sum.] Said bonds and property 
to be received and held by said American Mis- 
sionary Association, upon trust, and for the fol- 
lowing purposes, viz. : To safely manage the said 
trust fund, to change investments whenever said 
Association may deem it necessary or advisable 
to reinvest the principal of said trust fund in such 
securities, property, and investments as said 
Association may deem best, and to use the income 
17 257 


thereof only for the education of the colored 
people of African descent residing in the recent 
slave states of the United States of America 
hereinbefore specified. 

Such income to be applied for the education of 
such colored people as are needy and indigent, 
and such as by their health, strength, and vigor 
of body and mind give indications of efficiency and 
usefulness in after life. 

Said American Missionary Association and the 
proper officers thereof shall have the right, while 
acting in good faith, to select from time to time 
such persons from the above described class as 
are to receive aid from the income of said trust 
fund, hereby confiding to said Association the 
selection of such persons as it shall deem most 
worthy and deserving of such aid, but I would 
limit the sum of $100 as the largest sum to be 
expended for any one person in any one year 
from this fund. I impose no restrictions upon 
said Association as to the manner in which they 
shall use such income for the education of such 
colored people, whether by establishing schools 
for that purpose, and maintaining the same, or 
by furnishing individual aid; trusting to said 
Association and the officers thereof the use of 
such means in the execution of said trust as in 
their judgment will be most for the advantage 
of that class of people. 

Said trust fund shall be set apart, and at all 
times known as the " Daniel Hand Educational 
Fund for Colored People." And the said Asso- 
ciation shall keep separate accounts of the invest- 
ment of this fund, and of the income derived 
therefrom, and of the use to which such income is 


-yWsJSS ' 

Daniel Hand 


applied, and shall publish monthly statements of 
the receipts from said fund, specifying its source, 
object, and intention. 

The said American Missionary Association, 
acting herein by Henry W. Hubbard, its Treas- 
urer, and M. E. Strieby, its Corresponding Sec- 
retary, who are duly authorized by said Associ- 
ation to accept the foregoing gift, in trust, in the 
name of the Association, hereby accepts the same 
subject to all the conditions hereinbefore imposed 
thereon, and hereby agrees to perform said trust, 
and execute all the duties thereof in good faith, 
so as to carry out the wishes and intentions of 
the grantor. And the said American Missionary 
Association hereby acknowledges the receipt from 
said Daniel Hand of the above-mentioned bonds 
and property, in trust, and for the purposes here- 
inbefore specified. 

The giver of this noble fund died December 
17th, 1 89 1. He had lived to see in some measure 
the working of his great bestowment, and to give 
frequent expression of absolute confidence in the 
Association, and his gratitude that God had 
spared him to behold the beginning of his mag- 
nificent charity. It was found that in his will, 
after having made such provision for his dis- 
tant relatives as seemed wise to him, he had 
added to his munificent trust the residue of his 
fortune, making the Association his residuary 
legatee to the amount of more than another half 
million of dollars. 



Daniel Hand was born in Madison, Connecti- 
cut, July 1 6, 1 80 1, and was therefore ninety 
years of age at the time of his death. His an- 
cestors had resided in that town for several gen- 
erations. He was the fourth of seven sons, sur- 
viving them all. When sixteen years of age he 
went to Augusta, Georgia, under the direction 
of his second brother residing there, whom he 
succeeded in business. Mr. Hand remained in 
some part of the Southern Confederacy during 
the entire war. His partner, Mr. George W. 
Williams, who was conducting a branch of the 
business at Charleston, South Carolina, protected 
the capital of Mr. Hand from the confiscation 
seriously threatened, in view of his being a North- 
ern man of undisguised antislavery sentiments. 
After the war, when Mr. Hand came North, 
Mr. Williams adjusted the business, made up the 
account, and paid over to Mr. Hand his portion 
of the long-invested capital and its accumula- 
tions, as an honorable merchant and trusted 
partner would do. Bereaved of wife and chil- 
dren for many years, his benevolent impulses led 
Mr. Hand to form plans to use his large wealth 
for the benefit of his fellow men. He was a man 
of striking presence, of strong mind and strong 
convictions, earnest in his modes of thought and 
vigorous and terse in their expression. His reli- 



gious life and character were formed upon the 
model and under the influence of his Puritan 
ancestors. Uniting with the First Presbyterian 
Church in Augusta, Georgia, when twenty-eight 
years of age, for thirty years he presided over its 
Sunday-school as its superintendent. In his old 
age, as he laid his hand upon his well-worn Bible, 
he said, " I always read from that book every 
morning, and have done so from my boyhood 
except in comparatively few cases of unusual in- 
terruption or special hindrance." Such being the 
man, his splendid philanthropy is a natural se- 
quence. It is well to hold his honored name and 
his benefactions in lasting gratitude. 

From 1886 there is a record of great enlarge- 
ment, twenty-one advanced schools having been 
added to those previously existing. The additions 
of those of normal grade were one in Virginia, 
five in Georgia, one in Florida, four in Alabama, 
six in Tennessee, two in Kentucky, one in Missis- 
sippi, and one in Arkansas. This was in part 
made possible through the gift of Daniel Hand. 
The number of schools developed through the 
Daniel Hand fund was fourteen, which in 1892 
had increased to twenty-eight. Most of them 
had enlarged their teaching forces and had ad- 
vanced their standards of instruction. 

Meanwhile, Christian education in school and 


church is finding its justification and encourage- 
ment in the gradually changing life of the colored 
people. The slave is becoming a memory. The 
religious " spirituals " are giving way to " Gos- 
pel Hymns " ; there is an evident gain upon 
superstition; the ideas of liberty and manhood 
are being better understood ; increasing numbers 
of educated young men and women are proving 
their culture and their powers in helping to teach 
and uplift the unfortunate ones of their race still 
in ignorance and degradation. There is a steady 
gain upon the great mass of those unreached by 
any of the Christianizing agencies. These de- 
graded ones are many, and their condition fur- 
nishes critics with their assertions that the entire 
race is deteriorating. This is not true. As a 
race the colored people are surely rising. There 
are more good homes. There is acquisition of 
property. Many are accumulating wealth. It 
is this evident development, indeed, that is pro- 
ducing a ferment at the South which our records 
at this time particularly recognize. As the race, 
no longer enslaved, grows in self-consciousness 
and takes on a worthy ambition, the antagonisms 
of those who are unfriendly become more pro- 
nounced. It is the advancement, indeed, of the 
negro which excites unrest in those hostile to his 
progress. This, no doubt, is a necessary process, 



taking people as they are, and human nature 
being what it is. All transitional periods in indi- 
viduals and in peoples are trying, both to those 
who are passing out of one stage into another 
and to those who have to bear with the experience ! 
The situation in many parts of the South can- 
not be better outlined than by the following pas- 
sage written by a colored pastor: 

As you know, we are engaged in a life-and-death 
struggle to secure protection of life and property 
against mob violence and lynch law. We are trying 
to arouse a righteous public sentiment throughout the 
South and to bring about the passage of stronger and 
better laws. Yet when laws are passed, the work will 
only be begun. The social chaos of the South is due 
to the moral chaos. So long as one race is strong and 
wicked and the other weak and wicked mobs and lynch- 
ings will continue. 

The conditions at this period which confronted 
the Association find expression in an " Appeal of 
the colored people of the United States," in these 
words : 

We pray for patience, which, counting the blessings 
we enjoy rather than the ills we endure, inspires us to 
bear and forbear. We pray for wisdom to decide be- 
tween the good and the evil side, for race integrity. 
We pray not only for ourselves; we pray for the 
civilization which, after two thousand years of Chris- 



tian teaching, exults in deeds which would bring to 
the cheek of barbarism the blush of shame. We appeal 
to the intelligence and fairness of the American people 
to extend to colored citizens of the Republic the same 
rights, privileges, and immunities that are extended 
to foreigners for the asking. We appeal to the civiliza- 
tion of the world for that human sympathy which our 
unfortunate position warrants; also for that whole- 
some interest which of itself will tend to check law- 
lessness and make effective our rights of citizenship. 

The response to such pathetic appeals on the 
part of the Association may be seen in its utter- 
ances at this time. Said Dr. Charles H. Rich- 
ards, then of Philadelphia, at our Annual Meet- 
ing in Lowell, Massachusetts : 

There is a new South coming to the front. If I 
had the ear of that better South to-day I would say 
to it, " Here is your glorious opportunity. It is for 
you to bring to bear upon this vast element of danger 
such influences as will change it into immeasurable 
help and blessing to the South and to the world. And 
how can you do this? Can you do it by robbing the 
negro of those rights which the common law of our 
country has solemnly declared to be his? Can you do 
it by lynching him ? A thousand negroes in the South 
have suffered death by this lawless and barbarous 
method within the past ten years, many entirely inno- 
cent of the crime of which they were accused. . . . 
Put away the coward fear of negro equality. Prevent 
this not by keeping the black man down, but by con- 



stantly rising - higher yourselves. Nobody can catch 
up with you if you only keep far enough ahead. The 
salvation of the South is the salvation of the black 
race in the South. We would aid you in this great 
work. Welcome us as your fellow laborers." 

Dr. Lyman Abbott voiced the sentiments of 
the Association in the Annual Meeting in Boston : 

It means the same kind of law for the black man 
that there is for a white man. We protest against the 
heathen barbarism that hangs a white man for a crime 
after trial and burns a black man for crime without 
trial. . . . We claim for him equal political rights. 
The law which says to a thrifty negro, " You shall 
not vote," and to a thriftless white man, " You may 
vote," is an unjust and inequitable law. The law 
which provides one kind of educational qualification for 
this man because his skin is tanned and another for 
that man because his skin is not tanned is an unjust 
and inequitable law. We stand, too, for this, that all 
the redemptive influences which have been about us 
shall be about them ; that they shall have the same 
educational and religious facilities and the same stim- 
ulus to intellectual and moral growth. Any scheme 
of education which proposes to furnish the negro race 
only with manual and industrial education is a covert 
contrivance for putting him in serfdom; it tacitly 
says that the negro is the inferior of the white race, 
and therefore we will educate him to serve us. The 
race must have an education which in its final outcome 
shall be complete for the race as a race, which shall 
include the curriculum of education, and which shall 



open opportunities for the highest culture of which 
any individual of that race is capable. 

I stop a moment to speak with reverence to those 
who in the last quarter of a century under the auspices 
of this and similar societies have been carrying on 
this work in the South. These workers in our South- 
ern fields better illustrate and exemplify incarnation 
and atonement than any words of preacher ever have 
done. If ever in human history there was a body of 
men and women who have felt the breath of the 
Master on them, and heard his word, saying, " As the 
Father hath sent me into the world even so send I 
you," it is these men and women whose lives have been 
lives of long self-sacrifice, prosaic service unhonored 
and unsung of men, but not unhonored nor unsung 

Such testimonials, which might be multiplied at 
length, are the answer of the Association to the 
appeals of the colored people, and they are the 
answer to those who through the reiteration of 
those hostile in the South were continually insist- 
ing that the work of educating the children of the 
freedmen has been one of mistaken benevolence. 
Those who are looking chiefly at the degradation 
of the colored people not yet raised from their low 
estate, and at the evils which attend upon degra- 
dation, are asked to remember that empty minds 
have neither within themselves nor in their en- 
vironment protection against evil, and that the 
degradation is not because the race is losing 



ground once possessed. The condition of those 
still submerged is simply made more apparent 
because the race is gaining. In slavery when all 
were down in the bogs together, the race had no 
element of comparison, but now when the stand- 
ards of the race are higher, the contrast is strik- 
ing, and the condition of the residuum is not 
evidence that the race is deteriorating. There 
are those who judge the entire negro race by five 
per cent of degenerates out of the ninety-five per 
cent of the ignorant half. The truer judgment 
looks at the fifty-six per cent of the entire race 
that have been upraised to a worthy moral and 
intellectual condition, and have within a genera- 
tion attained a degree of material thrift and 
pure life, and a general regard for law and 
order that will not suffer in comparison with the 
attainments of similar white people North or 

It was permitted to Dr. Strieby to live to hear 
such testimonials and to recall the days when 
few of those who were prominent were able to see 
their way to cast their influence for a society 
which courageously stood for human rights 
and brotherhood when these were thought 
to be the idle speculations of impracticable 
dreamers. Dr. Strieby entered the service 
of the Association as Corresponding Secretary 



with Dr. Whipple in 1864, when he was forty- 
nine years of age. After graduation from Oberlin 
College and Seminary, he was pastor at Mt. Ver- 
non, Ohio, for eleven years. He next organized 
the church at Syracuse, New York, and, as at 
Mt. Vernon, proved his ability as a pastor and 
preacher. But his larger work was accomplished 
after middle life. No one can measure his influ- 
ence in the development of the work of the Asso- 
ciation during his secretaryship of thirty-five 
years. He had a prophet's look beyond the work 
of the hour, and saw the relation of things. His 
convictions were realities and he had the grace 
to hold them firmly. Often misunderstood and 
criticized, he was more sorry for his critics than 
angry with them, and in the stormiest sea his 
attitude of mind was, " You may sink me if you 
will, but I will keep my rudder true." Not 
anxious for praise, he was not afraid of blame 
when he felt that he was right. He could wait 
for the justification of time, which sets all things 
even, and he never doubted that clouds would 
break, never thought, though right were worsted, 
that wrong would triumph. He was too much of 
a prophet to be a time-server or to trim for any 
temporary advantage. Not many men of all the 
nation were doing more for the country than he 
in administering upon the broad schemes for the 


Secretary M. E. Strieby, D.D. 


Christian education and evangelization of the 
ignorant and needy peoples to whom he had de- 
voted his life. When he died at Clifton Springs, 
New York, March 16, 1899, there was no lack of 
testimony to the wisdom and greatness of his 
accomplished work. 

As the years progress, they differentiate mainly 
in the necessary and varying problems of admin- 
istration and development — problems never free 
from difficulties, and sometimes large with dis- 
couragements, but always marked by a conscien- 
tious performance of a constant purpose. The 
words of Rev. C. A. Patton, d.d., of St. Louis, 
Missouri, son of the early champion of the 
Association in its brave beginnings, are well 
chosen as he reviewed the years and their con- 
clusions : 

I thank God for the American Missionary Associ- 
ation. Through all these years it has anchored us to 
the conception of a universal brotherhood. Some 
churches have cared nothing for these things. Some 
have openly advocated the disruption of the races 
in the very house of the Lord. We have stood firm ; 
we have refused to lower our standards a hair's breadth 
under the pressure of prejudice or expediency. Please 
God, we never shall. This Association stands su- 
premely for the highest ideal of humanity; we believe 
it with all our souls. We are confident of its increas- 
ing success. Our progress may be slow, for the ten- 



dencies we combat are as old and as mighty as human 
wrong, but the result is sure. It matters not if we 
meet with indifference, criticism, or opposition; the 
cause is the cause of humanity and has behind it the 
eternal purpose of God. 



Contrasts : Hampton Institute as it was and is. — Atlanta 
University. — Berea College. — Fisk University. — Talladega 
College. — Tougaloo University. — Straight University. 

— Tillotson College. — Piedmont College. — Normal and 
graded schools. — Large development. — Illustration of 
extending influence. — Theological school at Atlanta. — 
Hopeful sympathy in the South. — Adverse sentiment. — 
Other agencies. — Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist, Prot- 
estant Episcopal, Friends. — Independent schools. — North- 
ern philanthropy discounted. — Reply of Kelly Miller. — 
Testimony of Dr. Curry. — Evidence of negro progress. 

— Dr. Talcott Williams' comparison of the negro and 
serf. — The social study of the negro churches. — Our 
denominational influence. — Retrospect and prospect. 


THE passing of threescore years has re- 
moved those who organized the Associ- 
ation and most of those who remember 
its feeble beginnings. During twoscore of these 
years its energies have been chiefly directed to 
the greatest problem of the country, the develop- 
ment and reconstruction of a race which began 
absolutely with nothing as it came out of the 
tyrannies and irresponsibilities of slavery. The 
Association also began with nothing except 
strong convictions and great faith. 

After this period of time, as we now survey the 
fields, there is abundant reason for gratitude to 
God and to his people. Between 1846 and 1906 
there are great contrasts. The little school at 
Hampton, Virginia, which grew and became 
great under the brilliant genius of General Arm- 
strong, perpetuated by the wise guidance of 
his distinguished successor, has won as an inde- 
pendent institution the national fame which it 
richly deserves. 

18 273 


Atlanta University, also a child of the Associ- 
ation which has come to self-provision, has been 
no small factor in the problem of the redemption 
and regeneration of a race. 

Berea College, still another child of the Associ- 
ation with a like early history, helped through its 
hard struggles for life and power to stand alone, 
rejoices in its successful ability to work out the 
prayer of its heroic pioneer educators, and to 
realize in its great mission the dreams of those 
who had faith in the promises, " having seen 
them afar off." 

Of the institutions now under the Association's 
watch and care, Fisk University stands promi- 
nent with its long list of college graduates, men 
and women, many of whom having achieved dis- 
tinction in the higher callings of life, have re- 
flected honor upon their college and upon their 

Talladega College, next in order of time, drew 
its first breath of life in 1867; and there are 
no scales now large enough to weigh the com- 
manding influences, intellectual and religious, 
which have gone forth to uplift and upbuild the 
tens of thousands who have felt its power. 

Tougaloo University, in the center of the Black 
Belt of Mississippi, wins from eminent white citi- 
zens of the state the highest testimonials and the 



fullest sympathy. One of its most distinguished 
citizens writes : " I rejoice in the missionary zeal, 
born of the Holy Spirit, which has sent so many 
cultured and consecrated men and women to 
labor among the negroes of the South. I live 
within a few miles of Tougaloo University; I 
believe it to be possibly the most potential factor 
in developing the negroes of our state for the 
higher functions of useful citizenship. I can but 
applaud the wise policy you have adopted and the 
splendid efficiency of your administration." 

Straight University in New Orleans in thirty 
years of its history, sending out large numbers 
of well-prepared teachers for public schools and 
devoted pastors for churches, has not only en- 
couraged a spirit of kindliness and confidence 
between the races where this was greatly needed, 
but has often been held up before Southern 
citizens by Southern educators as an exam- 
ple of what an institution of the kind should 
be. Its graduates scattered throughout this sec- 
tion of the South are found in all the trades and 

Tillotson College in Texas, younger and less 
prominent, has not failed to place its permanent 
impress upon that great state. Those of its stu- 
dents who have had their ambitions stirred to 
seek the larger advantages of New England col- 



leges have won laurels for scholarship and have 
placed themselves high in the ranks of acknowl- 
edged ability. 

Piedmont College in Georgia, our latest acces- 
sion of advanced institutions, in answer to ap- 
peals from our white brethren in those Southern 
states which were the scene of our exciting mis- 
sionary experiences before the war, is extending 
Christian education among the people of the 
highlands and the lowlands, and cementing the 
friendships of those who were strangers and who 
accounted us as foreigners. Through institu- 
tions such as these, we " are no more strangers 
and foreigners, but fellow-citizens with the 
saints," at least, and with many who may not 
strictly be so classified. 

One of the most interesting schools of the Asso- 
ciation was organized in the fall of 1895 through 
the large benevolence of Mrs. Julia A. Brick 
of Brooklyn, New York. Her gift of a beauti- 
ful plantation of one thousand one hundred and 
twenty-nine acres with several fine buildings 
thereon, gave the name to the institution, in honor 
of her deceased husband. The Joseph Keasbey 
Brick Agricultural, Industrial and Normal School 
is situated three miles from Enfield, North Caro- 
lina, on the Atlantic Coast Line. The fourteen 
years' history and growth of the school have al- 



ready realized in large measure her dream to 
ameliorate the sad conditions which existed when 
Mrs. Brick made her large bestowments to this 
work. No more fitting monument could have 
been built to the memory of her husband than this 
splendid school. 

Within the past twenty years, while our work 
has been that of concentration, the Association 
has increased its normal and graded schools from 
fourteen to forty-four, its corps of instructors 
from 218 to 476, and the pupils under instruction 
from 8,462 to 14,429. Within this time the 
higher grades in the schools have enlarged them- 
selves from 2,348 to 5,580. The teachers a score 
of years ago who had college degrees were twenty- 
two. There were in 1906, 136 graduates of col- 
leges teaching in our various institutions. The 
construction of buildings in this period for educa- 
tional purposes is represented by an additional 
insurance of more than half a million dollars. 

These statistics of present conditions, encour- 
aging as they are, by no means represent the full 
achievements of faith, nor adequately measure 
the work and influences of a single score of years. 
The benevolences of the churches and the legacies 
of those who have remembered the salvation and 
amelioration of the neglected peoples who have 
needed help for the way of life, have kept the 



Association in the front rank of all the agencies 
for this missionary work. 

As an illustration of the way in which these 
schools extend their influences, a single incident 
may be mentioned. Two officers of the Associa- 
tion on a recent tour of inspection in the South 
visited the State Normal Industrial College for 
the education of colored youth in North Carolina. 
The president of this state institution received 
them with cordial welcome, the more expressive 
because he had " been educated in one of the 
Association's schools." Passing to the next 
room, the teacher informed the visitors that she 
was " a product of the American Missionary 
schools." At the head of the mechanical depart- 
ment was an able director who gratified them by 
saying that he also had " received his prepara- 
tory education in one of the schools of the Associ- 
ation." Thus, three of the heads of departments, 
including the president, were passing on the work 
of the Association to others — a single instance 
among hundreds who have gone out from the 
schools of the Association with acquired power 
and new ambitions to help build up other South- 
ern institutions. 

Among the latest responsibilities assumed in 
the South is the experiment of a theological 
school located in Atlanta, Georgia. Our subven- 


Beard Hall, Joseph K. Brick School, Enfield, N. C. 

Chapel, Joseph K. Brick School, Enfield, N. C. 


tion to this, it is hoped, will bring large results 
in the ministry of reconciliation among the people 
who are in Georgia. 

The Association has been greatly encouraged 
in its work by helpful sympathy which the years 
have brought in the communities where our insti- 
tutions are located. It was natural that when our 
work began it should be looked upon with sus- 
picion. The wounds of the Civil War were not 
over, much less healed. In order to lift the lowly 
the teachers felt that they must not hesitate to 
take the black hand with the grasp of Christ ; they 
must stand with those whom they were seeking 
to save; they must help the people in their rude 
homes and teach them how to live; the poverty 
and the barrenness must feel the elevating touch 
not only of pity but also of sympathy. Those 
who looked upon this kind of consecration and 
did not understand it could have no other feel- 
ing than that of apprehension. The distrust of 
motives was natural. The fear of " social equal- 
ity " was ever present. The traditional ideas as 
to a servile race, the relationships to social en- 
vironment together with the keen sense of great 
material losses all stood in the way of apprecia- 
tion and of cooperation. But as the years have 
passed and the fruitage of the early planting has 
ripened, the spirit of the mission has been better 



comprehended and the larger-minded and wider- 
visioned have been able to readjust their feelings 
and opinions. Many have come to be in cordial 
cooperation with the Association, some as trus- 
tees of institutions and others as friendly visitors. 

The brave example of the wise men in the 
South who stand for the education and elevation 
of the negro is most grateful to the Association 
which has had this service upon its heart for half 
a century. It appreciates the moral courage and 
purpose of those who thus put prejudices aside 
in behalf of the needs of a less fortunate race, and 
who are resolute enough to plead with outspoken 
sympathy for its welfare in the face of an ad- 
verse sentiment increasingly popular among the 
masses and cruelly dominant. 

The assertion in the South, yet too common, 
that it " understands the negro question," and if 
" let alone " will settle it for itself, proceeds upon 
the supposition that a certain element in the 
South speaks for all of it. It takes little account 
of those larger in mind and heart, and wiser in 
thought but less numerous, while it dismisses 
from any consideration whatever a South of nine 
millions of souls which have human rights and 
whose personal concern for these rights has every 
claim to be consulted and regarded. As a mis- 
sionary society, born of zeal for righteousness 



of the public conscience in its application to the 
oppressed, and working since for millions re- 
deemed from slavery, it would be a guilty silence 
for us not to lift our voices in sympathy for them 
in this hour. To fail in protest against the spirit 
and purpose which would reduce the race to the 
perpetual injustice of a subject state, and make 
their freedom a bitter mockery, would be to sin 
against our history. Meanwhile, we believe that 
the people who would disfranchise the negro and 
deprive him of education needed for his advance- 
ment to an intelligent right to citizenship will 
finally be found on the losing side. Their partial 
realization of this doubtless explains in some 
degree the violence of their vociferousness. 

As we consider the years since i860, let us not 
forget the other agencies which have represented 
the churches of Christ in the missionary work of 
Christian education.and evangelism. The Freed- 
men's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church North has a, blessed and shining record 
since 1866. The Presbyterian Church North, be- 
ginning at the same time with like theories and 
methods, has pursued its work with the same fun- 
damental purpose. The Baptist churches of the 
Northern states for more than thirty years have 
developed their schools with the best ideas of 
Christian educators. The Protestant Episcopal 



Church has added its faith and works to uplift 
the children of the freedmen to Christian intelli- 
gence and character. The Society of Friends and 
many independent schools have during some parts 
of these years supplemented this service for the 
salvation of a race. 

The American Missionary Association, which 
was the pioneer to feel the poverty and degrada- 
tion of the negro, has found with each succeed- 
ing year the fruitful confirmation of its faith and 
the wisdom of its methods in this common re- 
demptive work. At least fifteen millions of dol- 
lars have passed through its treasury to repre- 
sent and stand for this faith as its expression. 
We may not here undertake to show what are 
the results of those who have given their lives 
and of those who have thus consecrated their 

It has been the fashion, mostly recent, on the 
part of those to whom the wish is father to the 
thought, to discredit the work which has been 
accomplished. Educated Southern men have 
been quoted as saying that " the money contrib- 
uted to negro education by Northern philan- 
thropy has been for the most part literally 
wasted." By persistent asseverations, diligently 
circulated assertions of this kind have gained in 
certain quarters considerable currency. One of 



those educated through this Northern philan- 
thropy thus replies : " This, in the face of the 
fact that it was through this same Northern phi- 
lanthropy that one-third of the population of the 
entire South has received its first and chief im- 
pulse for better and higher life; that these insti- 
tutions of Northern benevolence prepared the 
thirty thousand negro teachers for the positions 
they hold in the public schools ; and that the men 
and women who owe all of their elevation to this 
same philanthropy are those who are lifting the 
general life to a higher level, and doing all they 
can do to control and restrain the ignorant and 
vicious masses which have as yet been unreached 
by like influences." 

These people who disparage what has been ac- 
complished, and who persist in judging a race by 
its criminal class rather than by those who nobly 
represent it, would not wish the white race to be 
subject to the same mis judgment. The problem 
of ignorance, laziness, brutality, and criminality 
surely is not confined to any race or section. 
Wherever it is, it can only yield to time and 
patient work. With patient work it does yield 
to time. "If," said Kelly Miller, "it takes 
twenty-five years to educate a white boy, it must 
require an incalculably larger period to educate 
a black race. 



" We hear much of criminality. The chief evil 
of slavery was that the negro did not act from 
moral choice. When he was well-behaved, he 
was so upon compulsion ; when physical restraint 
was removed, there had been no convictive moral 
restraint to take its place. When freedom of 
action and liberty of choice came, the negro was 
not prepared for it, and yet the criminal average 
of the South Atlantic Division of states, where 
the colored race is densest, has by the Eleventh 
Census less criminals to a million people than the 
North Atlantic Division, and also less than the 
Western section, in each of which the negroes are 
relatively few. New York and California have 
a higher criminal record than Alabama and 
South Carolina." 

Alas, there is criminality! Ignorance begets 
crime. It remains true that without such serv- 
ice as Christian teachers have been giving, and 
are giving, millions would sink into hopeless 
degradation, favorable to crime. The products 
of the Christian schools have met every expecta- 
tion from the standard of character and conduct. 
If they have not banished all ignorance and all 
poverty, and obliterated all vicious tendencies, 
they have yet made a greater and more blessed 
record than words can express. 

A worthier testimony than that of confessed! 



hostility comes "from the honored secretary and 
administrator of the Slater and Peabody funds, 
Dr. Curry, than whom there could be cited no 
higher authority. This eminent Southerner says: 
" It is absolutely necessary to both races that edu- 
cation should go on. As a rule the criminals 
among Southern negroes are not only the prod- 
uct of post-bellum life; they are uneducated. It 
is the rarest thing that an educated negro com- 
mits crime against virtue and life. In our ex- 
tremity we look to the wise and just people in 
the Northern states to help us, to help the race. 
Without Northern cooperation conditions will go 
from bad to worse." With all the fervor of his 
large knowledge, Dr. Curry gave his answer to 
the strange theory that Christian education is a 
failure in that it does not prevent crime among 
those who as yet are beyond its saving power. 

There is no criticism that will stand the tests 
of candid inquiry as to the character and con- 
duct of those who go forth from a continuous 
course of study and discipline of our schools. 
They are at work uplifting their people. They 
are leavening the millions of their race. That 
the negro people are thus contributing to solve 
the problem of their salvation is a fact full of 
cheer. A mighty army of coworkers, many of 
them wide-visioned and wise, are both in them- 



selves and in their work confirming the faith of 
the fathers and the wisdom of their far-reaching 

For the past, then, there is every reason for 
gratulation, and for the future there is little call 
for doubt. The Association has not been infal- 
lible. This it has never claimed, but it has been 
providentially led. Let it be true that the fervor 
of Northern philanthropy is largely over; that 
the higher education is challenged by many who 
once actively supported it; that the negro has 
lost his vote in the Southern states and that many 
Southern people insist upon the astounding propo- 
sition that all education is a mistake for the negro ; 
it remains that the Association has no reason to 
reconsider its principles, nor to change its gen- 
eral methods. The results show that they have 
everywhere been a saving grace and a trans- 
forming power, a grand and fruitful investment 
with wonderful returns in character and in life. 
They have made thousands of good homes out 
of poor cabins and hundreds of good churches 
out of superstitious congregations. They have 
stimulated the virtues of industry and economy. 
They have successfully taught that character 
means advancement in life and in possessions. 
The evidences are to be seen in every town and 
village in the South. 



The Association looks out upon a negro popu- 
lation to-day of more than nine million. These 
are estimated to hold more than $400,000,000 of 
property or two-thirds as much as was held by 
nine million of whites in this country a century 
ago. The Association sees the negro people 
to-day operating thirteen per cent of the whole 
number of farms in the United States and thirty- 
seven per cent of the farms in the Southern 
states. The continued development of the race 
for forty years is simply phenomenal. 

At the same time, it is true that nearly one- 
half of the race is yet in deplorable ignorance. 
Among these are the shiftless and indolent with 
a low mental and moral life. From these the 
criminal class is recruited. Among these are 
the idlers who are seen in the streets and about 
the saloons of white men, clad in ragged gar- 
ments and covered with impossible head-gear. 
People do not see, unless they look for them, those 
who are not idling, those who are doing honest 
work with steady industry, those who have been 
quickened with ambition to improve, those who 
are teaching others, those who are making great 
sacrifices to keep their children in school. But 
because there is an idle residuum who will work 
only enough to maintain an impoverished exist- 
ence, there are those ready to pronounce all forms 



of education failures. It is intellectual and spir- 
itual ignorance which interprets itself in indus- 
trial inefficiency. 

An authority no less than Dr. Talcott Wil- 
liams has repeatedly testified that in the con- 
sistent application of an impartial Christian civili- 
zation the Association has proved itself to have 
possessed and used the true social remedy for the 
development and salvation of an undeveloped 

" Granted," he says, " that the negro race re- 
quires an industrial training and natural selec- 
tion, the negro must be provided with higher edu- 
cation which will prevent him from being a mere 
stratum at the base of industry. 

" If the negro group is to be more than a caste, 
it must develop its aim, its aspirations, and its 
future by the aid of a wide training which puts 
it in touch with the past, and this training must 
be at hand close to the negro population. 

" Neither college nor industrial training can 
be spared. If the republic is at length to fuse 
and assimilate all within its sovereignty, it can 
only be as all enjoy the possibility of every advan- 
tage open to any. The final object of all Ameri- 
can efTort is a more perfect union, and can only 
come by closing no door to any man. 

" The negro came of a race which had never 



known letters. The serf came of a stock which 
had inherited the learning of the Byzantine em- 
pire. Forty years have passed. Among the serfs 
not one in ten can read and write; not one child 
in fourteen is attending school. Only three per 
cent of the population — three out of every hun- 
dred — enter a schoolroom from year's end to 
year's end. The negro began environed with 
statutes which made his education a crime. After 
forty years fifty-five per cent of this adult popula- 
tion can read and write, where of the Russian 
serf seventy per cent are still illiterate. Thirty- 
five per cent of his population against three per 
cent of the Russian are at school ; and of his chil- 
dren, not one in fourteen, but two, are regularly 
attending their classes. The gate of all higher 
education is closed to the serf by administrative 
order. Two thousand negroes, many of them 
owing their education to this Association, have 
taken their college degrees. There is much to 
discourage, doubtless, in the condition of the 
American negro, but when I remember the prog- 
ress made by four million negroes in the United 
States, I feel more strongly that freedom is jus- 
tified of her children, whatever their color, and 
that the experience of the past is the just enlarg- 
ing hope of the future." 

In the " Social Study of the Negro Church," 
»9 289 


under the direction of the Eighth Atlanta Con- 
ference, the religious condition of the children of 
the freedmen in their various communions is 
carefully examined. As to the general character 
of the churches and preachers, there is yet much 
to be desired. Inquiry by correspondence of some 
two hundred negro laymen of intelligence in all 
parts of the South with a schedule of questions 
indicated a great crying need of religious effort 
and moral aspiration among the masses of the 
colored people — the need of an earnest, educated, 
and consecrated ministry. On the whole, the 
older type of preachers is gradually passing, and 
the churches more and more are demanding posi- 
tive Christian character and intelligent leader- 
ship. This process of emancipation from the 
old order of ignorant and often morally unfit 
preachers is going on largely under the leader- 
ship of educated and godly men from the mis- 
sionary schools. In our own Congregational 
affiliation the churches are both few and small 
in comparison with the great number of negro 
churches. Requiring first of all the reality of 
Christian life and experience, and standing for 
high religious, moral, and intellectual aims, as 
against the heritage of superstitions and the 
errors of ignorance, the growth necessarily has 
been slow, and the influence has been that of the 



leaven in the lump rather than of outward obser- 
vation. The majority of churches which bear 
the Congregational name are only partly self- 
supporting, but there are several whose member- 
ship presents a very high average of intelligence, 
and are not only self-supporting, but are exercis- 
ing the grace of Christian benevolence and serv- 
ice in behalf of missions both at home and in for- 
eign lands. The next generation will see the 
negro churches of the South exerting a stronger 
religious and moral influence upon the negro race 
than they are visibly doing to-day. 

Our brethren of other communions found a 
natural constituency among the negro people who 
bore their denominational name, and who only 
needed to be brought into an enlightened appre- 
ciation of its meaning. The Association did not. 
The Congregational name was new, and by the 
.great multitude interpreted as a new religion. 
Nevertheless, more than two hundred Congrega- 
tional churches live to plead for an ethical reli- 
gion, and for a Christianity which means purity 
and character. Intelligent preachers have dis- 
placed the ignorant and boisterous, and the gos- 
pel, proclaimed by ministers whose minds have 
been enlarged by the discipline of the schools and 
expanded by a knowledge of the world's life and 
thought, is doing much towards an intelligent 



apprehension of Christianity and the significance 
of the ministry of Christ. A large part of the 
justification of our church life among the negro 
people is in its leavening influence in other de- 
nominations, and in their steadfast example for 
purity and integrity. 

Looking backward, then, for sixty years, the 
Association can take up the song of the Psalmist 
who in reviewing the past of his people, and 
recognizing the good hand of God, was impelled 
to say, " He led them forth by the right way." 
It was in the current of God's gracious providence 
that the Association was brought into life. Its 
early years of struggle and ofttimes of apparent 
defeat were the days of its education and testing. 
When the fiery trial of war came, the accumulated 
strength of a patient overcoming was a posses- 
sion that enabled it to take up the great work of 
the redemption of a race without hesitation or 
delay. Since that time the providence of God 
has been a continuous providence, and if the work 
of redemption to any seems to have moved for- 
ward less rapidly than they hoped, we may re- 
member that the logic of evolution is not less con- 
clusive for reasoning slowly. What God in his 
purposes may have in store for the people whom 
his providence brought from the jungles of 
Africa and whom his providence emancipated, 



we cannot know until his providence shall have 
ripened. This much we have learned, that God 
has overturned the purposes of man. 

When men proposed to make the chains of the 
enslaved stronger, God snapped them. Enough 
has already been concluded to give us a pledge 
of God's purposes that he intends this people at 
least to be really and truly free, and to have their 
own opportunity for manhood and womanhood. 
That which has been settled in heaven will not be 
unsettled on earth. On man's part possession 
must wait upon preparedness. It is a salvation 
which must be worked out with fear and trem- 
bling. As to time, this salvation will move on 
with the movement of Christianity and the power 
of Christian faith in our land. Those who are 
working together with God are engaged in that 
which is assured. There is no uncertainty as to 
the final result. There may be opportunities, hin- 
drances, and what to us are discouraging delays, 
but He who came to " bring forth judgment unto 
truth shall not fail nor be discouraged." 

With the same faith, fortified by the fact that 
God has been mindful of us in our mission for 
the children of slavery, we apply ourselves to the 
appeals of our brethren of the Indian tribes on 
the reservations of the West, to the Chinese and 
Japanese thronging our ports on the Pacific, to 



the neglected souls, dwellers in our insular pos- 
sessions, to the poor and degraded Eskimos of 
the North. To the needy peoples under the shel- 
ter of the flag of our country God has called the 
Association with an unmistakable voice. In the 
light of our experience the way before us is 
plain. Our commission to preach the gospel to 
the poor, and to heal the broken-hearted, to 
preach deliverance to the captive, and recovery 
of sight to the blind, remains the same as afore- 
time. We may well keep on believing in the 
certainty of the kingdom of our Lord and re- 
joicing that " all things are given unto his hand." 




Northern Alaska : — Arrival of two missionaries at 
Cape Prince of Wales in Northern Alaska, July 4, 1890. 

— Mr. Thornton and Mr. Lopp. — A dwelling-house 
erected and also a school building. — Condition of the 
Eskimos. — The introduction of reindeer by Dr. Sheldon 
Jackson. — Marriage of Mr. Thornton and also of Mr. 
Lopp. — The murder of Mr. Thornton in August, 1891. 

— The rescue of sailors by the heroic service of Mr. 
Lopp. — The methods of reindeer administration. — The 
result of fourteen years' missionary ministry. — One hun- 
dred church-members, one mission school. — The pres- 
ent condition of the Eskimos. — A new order of life. 

Porto Rico : — Condition of the Island when visited by 
the officers of the Association. — Work begun. — Schools 
at Lares and Santurce. — Evangelistic work. — Transfer 
of school at Lares to the Presbyterian Mission. — School 
at Santurce takes name of " Blanche Kellogg Institute." 

— Evangelistic work in Fajardo. — Church edifices erected. 

— Six churches organized. — Great encouragements. 

Hawaii : — Withdrawal of American Board. — Incom- 
ing of foreigners from Asia. — Mission taken by the As- 
sociation. — The urgent appeal of the President of the 




IN the summer of 1890 two young men at the 
suggestion of Dr. Sheldon Jackson and at 
the call of The American Missionary Associ- 
ation, left San Francisco on a whaling vessel to 
establish a new mission among the Eskimos in 
Northern Alaska. Mr. Thornton was from Vir- 
ginia and Mr. Lopp from Indiana. On the fourth 
of July they arrived at Cape Prince of Wales, the 
farthest western point on the North American 
continent. They knew nothing of the people, who 
had been described as a savage and hostile race. 
Within ten days they had so far put together the 
building which they had brought with them that 
they could shelter themselves. The vessel sailed 
away, and they were then left in a settlement of 
about five hundred Eskimos. Another frame 
building was soon erected for a school. 

The natives had never before seen a house, and 
began hammering away at the doors and win- 



dows, for they had no idea that they should be 
kept out. The missionaries, by means of the few 
words they had learned, and by signs, did their 
best to pacify them. They continued, however, 
to batter at the doors for several days, but this 
was found to be simply a matter of curiosity. The 
Eskimos were really disposed to be friendly in- 
stead of being hostile. Within a short time the 
missionaries had no fears of violence from them, 
and soon they had gathered a school of some 
sixty pupils. They found the people with only 
their spoken language and with no positive 
ideas of God or of a future life, and no religious 

The only danger from Eskimos was due to 
their intoxication when they could barter skins 
for whisky with sailors from our ships. When 
under the influence of drink the people became 
boisterous and rude and sometimes violent, and 
there were stormy times. " We were determined, 
however," wrote the missionaries, " not to let 
the natives see that we were afraid of them; so 
we taught our school, took our exercise, and went 
hunting our fresh meat as usual, finding it much 
more tolerable to take some risks than worry 
ourselves with constant thoughts of danger." 
Gradually the natives, as they came to under- 
stand the teachers, behaved more peaceably. 



During the autumn the troubles of the mis- 
sionaries were complicated by a terrible epidemic 
of pneumonia which carried off many of the 
people. The superstitious Eskimos attributed 
this epidemic to the presence of strange mission- 
aries. It was really due to a cold west storm 
which came on as the people were preparing to 
move from their summer tents to their under- 
ground houses for the winter. 

The mission prospered, nevertheless, and the 
school was largely increased in numbers, despite 
annoyances by children and adults clambering 
on the roof of the house, knocking on the walls 
and yelling at the windows. When it was found 
that these disturbances could be much reduced 
by suspending the school for a few days, good 
order was restored. 

As soon as the missionaries had attained suffi- 
cient knowledge of the language they began 
specific religious services. They found that the 
natives believed, in a vague way, in good and evil 
spirits — about as children believe in ghosts — 
but they proved to be receptive of the binding 
obligations of truthfulness, honesty, and other 
Christian virtues. 

The natives were living ten months of the year 
in underground houses, often damp, always ill- 
ventilated and ill-lighted, but their open-air 



exercise in hunting and fishing kept them, upon 
the whole, stout and hardy and healthy. With- 
out chairs or tables, they ate with their fingers 
from wooden dishes, sitting on the floor. Their 
cooking consisted in boiling alone, without other 
condiment than a little sea-water. Their dress 
was mainly of deerskins and sealskins. Inasmuch 
as these could not be washed, they were always 
infested with vermin. 

The missionaries early undertook to introduce 
houses made with drift-logs, and to improve the 
condition of the people by bringing better appli- 
ances for fishing and hunting which secured their 
livelihood. They dressed themselves in seal- 
skins and deerskins in the Eskimo way, and 
really suffered but little more from the cold than 
when at home. Hunting with the natives, they 
found them to be persevering and courageous. 

In 1892 Dr. Sheldon Jackson with statesman- 
like foresight secured an appropriation for intro- 
ducing reindeer from Siberia into Alaska as a 
food supply and a means of enabling the natives 
to become more and more a pastoral people. This 
nearly seemed to be the only hope of their con- 
tinued existence, for supplies of food were not 
only precarious but also decreasing. The intro- 
duction of reindeer by Dr. Jackson was a pro- 
phetic movement for the civilization of the Eski- 



mos. The wisdom of this action cannot be too 
highly appreciated. It has not only brought them 
better food and more of it, but has led to new 
ideas of industrial life. Our mission has found 
large value in many ways in the reindeer herds. 
At the present time there are more than five thou- 
sand reindeer distributed in various centers in 
Alaska. The largest herd in Alaska is in charge 
of the mission of The American Missionary Asso- 
ciation at Cape Prince of Wales. 

In 1892 our missionaries reported a slow but 
unmistakable growth among the Eskimos in the 
apprehension of civilized ideas and of godliness. 
The Sunday church services were well attended. 
In short, the old superstitions were slowly be- 
ginning to give way. The idea that the school 
bell frightened away the seals was put aside. The 
chief magic doctor, who stabbed himself in order 
to secure a good whaling season, found less con- 
fidence on the part of the people. 

On August 19 of the next year Mr. Thornton 
— who in the meantime had returned to New 
York, married, and taken his wife to the mission 
station, as had also Mr. Lopp — was awakened 
about midnight by loud raps at the door. Going 
to the door with the idea that some one was sick 
and needed medicine, he was shot dead by three 
natives, who were probably crazed by drink. 



Mrs. Thornton wrote afterwards : " We did not 
fear the people when they were sober, but when 
they were drunk we felt the peril." In the morn- 
ing the friendly Eskimos came and lifted the body 
of her murdered husband to a couch, and then 
carried the terrible news to the settlement. The 
natives at once went out, hunted down the mur- 
derers, killed them, and dragged their bodies up 
to the house, insisting that Mrs. Thornton should 
come out and look at them and know that they 
were punished. There was great mourning in 
the village. Nearly the whole village came to 
the door. " You need not be afraid. We are 
friends, we will not hurt you," they said. 

After this tragedy Mrs. Thornton returned 
home to this country, and Mr. Lopp with his 
family continued in successful charge of the 

One of the most noteworthy events in the his- 
tory of this mission was the heroic service of 
Mr. Lopp in the rescue of three or four hundred 
sailors at Point Barrow, where the crews of eight 
trading vessels had been frozen up in the Arctic 
Ocean. At the request of the government Mr. 
Lopp undertook to drive over the wilderness of 
ice the mission reindeer herd seven hundred miles 
for the rescue of the ice-imprisoned seamen. It 
was a perilous journey, and even the Eskimos 



predicted he could never reach his destination. 
" It was a great trial," he wrote, " but we knew 
we would be remembered at the weekly prayer- 
meeting of our Eskimo Christians." He was 
successful in his endeavor, and later on the gov- 
ernment renewed the mission herd to its former 

The method of the administration of the rein- 
deer herd has been to give yearly a certain 
number of the deer to those Eskimos who are 
sufficiently trained to take care of them. This 
furnishes to them and their associate friends a 
supply for food, for service and clothing. There 
are now nine separate groups owned by the Eski- 
mos amounting to nearly one thousand deer, while 
nearly six hundred other deer still remain in 
direct charge of the mission. This feature has 
contributed largely to the improvement of the 

As a result of this fourteen years' missionary 
ministry, there was in 1904 at the Cape a practi- 
cally transformed community. These Eskimos 
are already known all along the coast for their 
morals, industry, and a new spirit of enterprise. 
Many of them are faithful Christians. About 
one hundred are church-members. The mission 
school numbers one hundred pupils. The story 
of the mission is a striking illustration of the en- 



lightening and saving power of the gospel. A 
printing-press given by the " Boys' Missionary 
Society " of the Church of the Pilgrims, Brook- 
lyn, has been found very useful, and some of the 
schoolboys have not only learned to set type but 
have made some rude woodcuts which indicate 
an undeveloped talent in this line. 

In 1905 the Alaska Mission at Cape Prince of 
Wales came under the care of Rev. James F. 
Cross, who had a large previous experience in 
Indian work upon the western reservations. He 
was greatly impressed with the importance of the 
work and of the opportunity for it. He found 
that with the coming of the mission, the schools, 
and the court, the degradation of women had 
nearly ceased ; that with the growing market for 
native products, the eager spirit of the native for 
religious instruction, the prospect and hope for 
the native Alaskan is bright. A new order of life 
has begun in the knowledge and acceptance of 
American civilization and Christianity. The visit 
of Dr. Jackson more than eighteen years ago, 
when he introduced to The American Missionary 
Association the proposition that it should enter 
upon missionary work at Cape Prince of Wales, 
was certainly eventful. The great good that has 
resulted from this visit and from his urgency in 
behalf of the neglected, uncivilized, and benighted 



Eskimos in this mission alone, must cause him to 
be regarded by these rapidly developing people as 
their first and greatest benefactor. 

The successor of Mr. Cross found the most 
northern Congregational church in the world 
with a membership numbering two hundred and 
sixteen people, who are living consistent Chris- 
tian lives. The younger people of Wales have 
taken on our own language with the gospel, and 
the mission was never more rewarding or even 
promising than it is to-day. History does not 
give us many such wonderful changes in conduct 
and character as is seen in this mission station 
in the short period of eighteen years. 


When Porto Rico came into the family of the 
United States, the Association was the first to 
make anything like a thorough study of the 
islands in missionary interests. It was then in 
the first months of military rule under General 
Henry, an able administrator, earnest for civil 
improvements, and a Christian man who honored 
the Christian faith. 

We found a beautiful tropical country with 
vegetation abundant and varied, and with a soil 
rich beyond any signs of exhaustion. W r ith prac- 



tically one season of the year for seed-time and 
harvest, the sowing and reaping could be done at 
pleasure. We found a population of nearly a 
million classified in round numbers as 500,000 
whites, 400,000 colored — made up of a mixture 
of white, Indian, and negro blood — and 100,000 
pure negroes. Of this million of people it was 
estimated that 800,000 were in absolute illiteracy, 
without knowledge beyond that of their own huts. 
One-tenth of the fraction who could read had not 
advanced to where they were able to write. In 
every town there were those who were educated 
and who held the responsible local positions, but 
who had entirely failed to realize any responsi- 
bility for this mass of ignorance around them. 

We found churches but no people in them. The 
Church of Spain, which for four hundred years 
had unhindered opportunity with the patronage 
of the State, so grievously failed to interpret 
Christianity that it had produced this fruitage. 
The mental and spiritual poverty were paralleled 
in the low-down material condition of the great 
body of the people. 

With a climate healthful and soil of great nat- 
ural productiveness, it would seem that the 
people ought to enjoy more than the ordinary 
blessings of life and to be easily living in com- 
fort. Instead, their physical condition, like their 



moral state, was found to be pitiful beyond 

When this degradation came to the considera- 
tion of the Association, the duty appeared to be 
plain, since this people now belonged to us and 
since we belonged to them, that we must seek 
their salvation. Such mental and spiritual degra- 
dation must not continue. 

In accordance with this sense of duty, two 
schools each with several teachers were at once 
opened — one in the center of the island at Lares 
and one next the capital — on the military road 
in Santurce. This action was followed as speedily 
as possible by the beginnings of a purely evangel- 
istic work looking forward to the organization 
of churches which should stand for the truth and 
purity of Christian life. 

After years of successful work at Lares, when 
the government had opened an excellent school in 
the village, the same necessity did not seem to exist 
for our presence there in an educational form, 
and as our brethren of the Presbyterian Church 
were willing to assume the responsibility for evan- 
gelistic work at Lares the Association transferred 
its interests to the eastern portion of the island. 

The school at Santurce has been since this early 
beginning a center of earnest Christian influ- 
ence. With the Bible as one of the text-books, 



it has put the lessons of Christianity into the re- 
ceptive life of young people year by year, and 
has been a blessed ministration of the gospel in 
the fidelities of Christian teachers. Plans have 
already been made for an enlarged development 
of this school under the name of " Blanche Kel- 
logg Institute," when, with increased facilities 
for extended and advanced work, we hope to 
make a large central institution as a worthy ex- 
pression of our faith and love. 

The evangelistic work of the Association, apart 
from that which takes the educational form, has 
been directed from Fajardo, a seaport upon the 
eastern coast. This has been crowned with the 
favor of God. Two tasteful and commodious 
church edifices have been erected. The pastor 
at Fajardo rejoices in the membership of a hun- 
dred and twenty-five who have been hopefully 
converted. A church at Humacao, housed in a 
fine building, numbers one hundred and seven 
members who have come out of great darkness 
into the light of the gospel. In all six Congrega- 
tional churches have been organized with four 
hundred and thirty members. These are most 
cheering figures, but they fail to represent the 
greatness of the blessing which has followed the 
endeavors of our missionaries. A census has its 
significance in what it stands for, but when we 



recall what the conversion of these people means 
— the difference between a miserable Porto Rico 
shack and a Christian home, the redemption from 
degradation to a true Christian civilization, and 
the ideas of life and duty which it includes and 
carries forward — the process of numeration falls 
short of the reality. What we have to encour- 
age is much, but as yet we have only begun to 
plow the ground and sow the seed. In good hope 
we await the response of the future to the ques- 
tion, " What shall the harvest be? " 


Another outpost of civilization is Hawaii. The 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions occupied the Sandwich Islands as its 
first field of missionary labor in 1819. The story 
of the heroism and wonderful work of the early 
missionaries is one of the brightest pages in 
Christian achievement. 

Upon the withdrawal of the American Board, 
the " Hawaiian Evangelical Association " ap- 
pealed to The American Missionary Association 
for aid in carrying on the mission work in these 
islands. While the Hawaiians have been greatly 
reduced in numbers, the Chinese, Japanese, and 
Koreans have recently come in by tens of thou- 



sands. As the native race is dying out, the Ori- 
entals with their paganism have hurried in. And 
since the islands are now a part of our country, 
these foreigners from Asia have for a time at 
least come to be members of our national family. 
For a time we say; we know that in time many 
of them will return to their former homes. They 
are with us now, five thousand miles nearer than 
the lands from which they have come. 

These peoples are ready for the gospel. Alert 
for our civilization, they are inquiring for the 
reasons and motives of our religious life. They 
will make good foreign missionaries if we suc- 
ceed in leading them to Christ. The call to the 
Association to aid in this work seemed to come 
with the imperative of God's own appointment. 
In the words of the President of the Association, 
" Whatever the cry from other lands, for a little 
time at least, this appeal of Hawaii should have 
no second place with those who desire the evan- 
gelization of the world." Let us hope that a 
great company of Chinese, Japanese, and Kore- 
ans will carry with them to the Orient the gospel 
and its blessings which they shall receive at our 




THE group of men who represented the 
Association at its beginning organized 
themselves for the heroic work before 
them with the following Executive Committee: 

Arthur Tappan S. E. Cornish 

Theo. S. Wright William H. Pillow 

Simeon S. Jocelyn William E. Whiting 

Amos A. Phelps J. W. C. Pennington 

Charles B. Ray Josiah Brewer 

J. R. Johnson Edward Weed 

Of these the most noted was Arthur Tappan, 
a sketch of whose life has been given in a pre- 
vious chapter. Two of these original members 
belonged to the negro race. Josiah Brewer, the 
father of the honored Associate Justice Brewer 
of the United States Supreme Court, brought 
with him both missionary experience and large 
personal influence. He served on the Board for 
seventeen years. Only one, W. E. Whiting, who 
remained on the Committee for thirty-six years, 
was a member of the original company at the 
time of the Civil War. 



During the war, among those who shaped the 
history of the Association as its Executive Com- 
mittee were Rev. William B. Brown, d.d., 1855— 
1880, and Rev. John Milton Holmes, 1 862-1 869. 
At this time the Corresponding Secretaries and 
Field Secretaries were members of the Executive 
Committee and were largely responsible both 
for the plans of the work and for their execution. 
They had personal acquaintance with existing 
conditions and had their facts at first hand. They 
were familiar with the South, and theirs was the 
chief influence both in respect to the location of 
the institutions and the direction of their policies. 
Of prominent names on the Executive Committee 
since, there were Hon. Samuel Holmes, who 
served with great faithfulness and constancy of 
devotion for thirty-three years; General O. O. 
Howard; General Clinton B. Fisk, 1 875-1890; 
Mr. Charles L. Mead, 1875-1898; Dr. Lyman 
Abbott for ten years ; Dr. A. J. Lyman, fourteen 
years; Dr. J. W. Cooper, sixteen years; Dr. 
Elijah Horr, twelve years, and Dr. Nehemiah 
Boynton, ten years. Of the present members 
those longest in service are Mr. Charles A. Hull, 
twenty-five years, and for several years chair- 
man of the Committee; Dr. William H. Ward, 
twenty-seven years; Dr. L. C. Warner, sixteen 
years, and Dr. Lewellyn Pratt, eleven years. 



It will be seen that while frequent changes have 
occurred in the membership of the Committee 
a historic continuity has been preserved which is 
exceedingly important in view of the many prob- 
lems that have confronted the Association. 

The duties of the Executive Committee, which 
holds its regular meetings on the second Tuesday 
of each month, call for constant and most careful 
attention. To a " Committee on Finance " is en- 
trusted the special regard for the property of the 
Association, both land and buildings, and of all 
the trusts in its hands. The legacies, endow- 
ments, investments, and the like are under their 
special oversight and direction when once passed 
upon by the General Committee. 

A " Committee on Missions " hears the reports 
from the respective fields, decides upon recom- 
mendations for their varied claims and necessi- 
ties, and in general furthers the efficiency and 
economy of the missionary work of the Associa- 
tion, whether it be in churches or schools. This 
is subject to the supervision and direction of the 
Executive Committee. A " Committee on Sup- 
port " considers methods of promoting a mis- 
sionary spirit throughout the churches and of 
securing funds for the support of the work and 
for the pressing demands for its enlargement. 
Each of these committees appoints its own meet- 



ings and keeps its own book to record its proceed- 
ings, the minutes of which are read at the regular 
meetings of the Executive Committee; and each 
of them is in regular consultation with the Cor- 
responding Secretaries whose information and 
advice is sought on all questions that present 
themselves to the Association. 

Additionally a special " Committee on Appro- 
priation " has for its duty the consideration of 
the work of the Association and the presentation 
to the Executive Committee of a detailed state- 
ment of the amounts necessary for each depart- 
ment of the work, and the recommendation as to 
the amounts which should be appropriated for 
the ensuing fiscal year. 

The Corresponding Secretaries, previous to 
changes which came by the outbreak of the Civil 
War, were Rev. George Whipple, d.d., from 
1847 to 1876, and Rev. S. S. Jocelyn, from 1853 
to 1863. In 1864 Rev. M. E. Strieby, d.d., suc- 
ceeded Mr. Jocelyn and continued until 1895, 
when he was appointed " Honorary Secretary," 
which office he held until his death. Rev. 
J. R. Shipherd served for two years, from 
1866; and Rev. W. W. Patton, d.d., for two 
years from 1868. Rev. James Powell, d.d., who 
had served both as District Secretary and As- 
sociate Corresponding Secretary, was Corre- 



sponding Secretary in 1887 and died in the same 
year. Rev. A. F. Beard, d.d., who was called 
from the American Church in Paris, France, to 
be Associate Corresponding Secretary in 1884, 
was elected Corresponding Secretary in 1887. 
After a service of eighteen years in this capacity, 
Dr. Beard was elected " Honorary Secretary and 
Editor." Rev. Frank P. Woodbury, d.d., was 
Corresponding Secretary from 1890 to 1905. 
Rev. C. J. Ryder, d.d., who was Assistant Cor- 
responding Secretary in 1892, became a Corre- 
sponding Secretary in 1895. Rev. James W. 
Cooper, d.d., was elected Senior Corresponding 
Secretary in 1903. 

The duties of these officers named above have 
been the charge and direction of the work of the 
Association under the Executive Committee. 
Responsible for plans and suggestions, for facts 
and intelligence from the varied institutions in 
the field; for general watch and care of every 
interest as well as for the proper presentation 
of these interests to the churches and the public, 
the position is one of unceasing thought and 

The treasury is a department the importance 
of which every one can realize, but which those 
who have not particularly informed themselves 
can but partially appreciate. To receive all money 



contributed or entrusted to the Association, and 
to keep clear and accurate accounts of sums re- 
ceived and expended, were this all its functions, 
would be comparatively easy. The correspond- 
ence immediately relating to this department is 
large and calls for constant consideration. It in- 
volves not simply the payment of teachers and 
missionaries, the insurance of properties in very 
many states, but also the care of all deeds, the 
watchful protection of all endowments and in- 
vestments and estates, that no losses may any- 
where occur. The books and accounts are ever 
open to the inspection of any member of the 
Executive Committee and are submitted month 
by month to the Finance Committee for their 

The first Treasurer, Lewis Tappan, served, 
from 1846, nineteen years. He was succeeded 
by Edgar Ketchum, who was Treasurer from 
1866 to 1879. I n l &76 Henry W. Hubbard was 
called from Fisk University as Assistant Treas- 
urer, and was appointed Treasurer in 1879. The 
thirty-three years of the Treasurership filled by 
Mr. Hubbard have witnessed a good part of 
the development of the Association, and there 
is no one at the present time who has an equal 
memory of the facts and incidents of the earlier 
history. If fidelity coupled with ability and con- 



stant loyalty to all the interests and principles of 
the Association call for appreciative record in 
this story of its life and work then this testimony 
on the part of the writer of this history is but a 
partial recognition of difficult work well done. 

Among those who have linked the work of 
their lives with the history of the Association was 
Rev. Joseph E. Roy, d.d., who for ten years as 
Field Superintendent and eighteen as District 
Secretary at Chicago, made a deep impression 
and exerted a wide influence in each capacity. 
When he died he was the last of those truly large, 
broad-minded, wide-visioned men who espoused 
an unpopular cause in its beginning and conse- 
crated themselves in full-hearted sincerity and 
without question to the oppressed and to their 
uplifting. Dr. Roy was simply revered among 
the colored people of the South. He had not only 
their absolute confidence, but the abundant wealth 
of their affection as a loving friend of their race. 
The influence of his personality will not pass 
away with his earthly life. 

One of the forces of the Association from its 
first days has been The American Missionary. 
Not a great magazine, it has had its full share 
of influence in developing and holding the special 
constituency which has supported the work. 
Upon its pages are the stories of its hopes and 



fears, its struggles and its successes. Those who 
have welcomed it to their homes have been the 
steadfast friends of all that the Association rep- 
resents. These are they whose constant flow of 
benevolence has made the columns of figures 
in the financial reports from month to month 
and year to year swell into the great total of mil- 
lions of dollars which have gone into the lives and 
characters of millions of people. This transmu- 
tation of gold into character in human life has in 
part been effected by The American Mission- 
ary, which has always been a chief agency in 
spreading the intelligence of its work, thus inter- 
esting those who have contributed, not money 
only, but themselves, their sons and daughters 
for the service of the Association in its mission 
to the lowly and the needy. A distinguished 
negro, who is not in denominational affiliation 
with us, writing upon " The Progress and Devel- 
opment of the Colored People," says: 

Among the forces that have helped to make this 
progress possible I place the kindly sympathy that has 
been manifested by our white friends. I do not believe 
that in the history of the world there ever went into 
a needy field a nobler band of men and women than 
those who went into the South at the close of the war 
for work among freedmen. Too much emphasis can- 
not be placed upon the type of white men and women 
with whom this race first came in contact in its efforts 


JuSliPH li. KiiV. D.D. 


to rise, and of those who have largely had control of 
the great philanthropic movements for its uplift. The 
boys and girls, the young men and women, who came 
in contact with these early missionaries and teachers, 
can never forget them, nor can the impressions made 
upon them ever be effaced. The spirit of these early 
missionaries and teachers survives in some of the 
men and women who are still laboring in the Southern 
field, who are now teaching in the schools, colleges, 
and universities, for which we are profoundly grateful. 
All the great religious denominations of the country 
have had a hand in this work of development, but of 
them all the contribution made by the American Mis- 
sionary Association, in my judgment, has been of 
greatest value. More than any other organization 
you have recognized the manhood of the negro; and 
in all your dealings with him you have more largely 
than any other organization, so far as I know, treated 
him as a man and a brother; and so you have been 
swayed less than any other organization, so far as I 
know, by colorphobia; and I believe of all organiza- 
tions that have been working among us as a race, your 
great Association has shown most of the spirit of 
what I call true, genuine Christianity. 

There are some things that the men and women who 
make up the church of Jesus Christ ought to grapple 
with, and one of them is race prejudice. The reli- 
gious sentiment of the country has been powerless to 
check it because it has never concerned itself very 
much about it. Instead of lifting up the standard for 
the people, it has been too willing to follow the stand- 
ard which a non-Christian world has set up. Such 

21 3 21 


has not been the case with this Association. For 
example, the little periodical which you publish, The 
American Missionary. I know of no magazine in 
the country in which the negro question is discussed 
more intelligently, more sympathetically, more cour- 
ageously, or on higher Christian principles. It is never 
afraid to touch the question, or to speak out frankly, 
fearlessly for the negro, not because he is a negro, 
but because he is a man and brother ; it never stops to 
ask whether what it is about to say is acceptable to a 
negro-hating public sentiment or not ; its aim has been 
not to placate such a sentiment; not to express itself 
in such a way as to give no offense to such a sentiment, 
thereby throwing its influence practically in favor of 
such a sentiment, but to lift up a standard for the 
people — a standard which reflects not the spirit of 
race hatred, the spirit of caste, but the spirit of Jesus 
Christ. Wherever this magazine has gone, it has car- 
ried this gospel of the fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man ; it has revealed the spirit of the 
men who have spoken through it, and it has shown that 
they were men who fully believed in the negro as a 
man and brother. 

Thus we have come to the sixty-second year of 
our missionary endeavor. After having gradu- 
ated several institutions and churches into inde- 
pendence and self-support, there remain upon our 
lists in the South alone, four theological schools, 
four colleges, twenty-nine secondary institutions, 
seventy-three schools of all grades, with five hun- 



dred and sixty officers and teachers, and more 
than fifteen thousand pupils under our watch and 
care. One hundred and ninety-four churches 
organized by the Association have nearly twelve 
thousand church-members. In Porto Rico, with 
one noble central school, there are numbered eight 
churches with five hundred and fifty-six church- 
members. Added to this are twenty-one churches 
among the North American Indians with some 
fifteen hundred devout church-members, and one 
Normal and Training School with eighteen in- 
structors. The Eskimo mission reports one hun- 
dred and forty-two members in its church at Cape 
Prince of Wales. Significant additions have 
been made to our mission plants, — notably at 
Fisk, Tougaloo, and Straight universities, and 
at Talladega College. Many of our secondary 
schools have been enlarged. Eight churches and 
branch churches have been organized among the 
Chinese and Japanese in California. Our inter- 
est in Hawaii has been abundantly rewarded. 

The year 1908 completes a period of twenty 
years since Daniel Hand, in his lifetime, made to 
the Association the great gift of $1,000,894.25 in 
securities. There has been added to this fund 
from time to time, from the estate of Daniel 
Hand, the sum of $464,965.00, making the total 
of the Daniel Hand Educational Fund received 

3 2 3 


to September 30, 1908, $1,465,859.25. This fund 
and the income received have been kept separate 
and distinct from the other funds of the Associa- 
tion, and the accounts have also been as required 
by the terms and conditions of the trust. There 
has been collected as income from this fund 
during this period of twenty years the sum of 
$1,232,180.05, and there has been expended the 
sum of $1,229,582.54. 

In reviewing this twenty-year period of the 
Daniel Hand Fund, it will be of interest to note 
that the current receipts and endowments to the 
Association — exclusive of the Daniel Hand Fund 
and its income, and exclusive of income from the 
Avery Fund, assigned for support of missionary 
work in Africa — have been $6,928,237.81, and 
including the Daniel Hand Fund and income and 
the income for missionary work in Africa, the 
total receipts for the twenty years have been 

Finally, the question before us is the same as 
when we began sixty-two years ago. To quote 
Secretary Cooper: "The question before us is: 
Whether the churches of America have the moral 
power to meet the moral problems of America. 
It is the test of our Christianity. The moral en- 
thusiasm of the nation which sent a million men 
into our Civil War to fight for the freedom of the 



slave, is something utterly unknown to the young 
men of the present generation. It required a 
great national crisis, the precipitation of open 
conflict, all the pomp and circumstance of war, to 
call forth the moral heroism, the dauntless cour- 
age, the supreme self-sacrifice of 1861, when men 
' offered themselves willingly among the people,' 
and ' jeoparded their lives even unto death in the 
high places of the field.' Have we the faith in 
Christ and the enthusiasm for humanity which 
will inspire in us the same heroic devotion now? 
Have we the strength of purpose, the consecra- 
tion, the love of man, the impartial hope, to carry 
through to a successful issue this less dramatic 
but no less serious or strenuous struggle for 
humanity to-day?" 




Abbott, Lyman, 265, 314 

Abolitionist, 17 

Abolition of Slavery, 6, 7, 16 

Adams, John, 6 

Adams, John Quincy, 29, 211 

Africa, 38, 48 

Alaska, in Northern, 295, 297 

A. B. C. F. M., 22, 309 

American Church, Paris, France, 

American Missionary, The, 319 
Am. S. S. Union, 22 
American Tract Society, 22 
Amistad Captives and Committee, 

23, 3°> 42 
Andrews, George W., D.D., 178, 

Antislavery Societies, 6, 11, 15, 19 
Appeal of the Colored People, 263 
Arctic Ocean, 302 
Armstrong, Gen. S. C, 125, 128, 


Atlanta, Ga., 139 

Atlanta Theological Seminary, 278 

Atlanta University, 159, 160, 274 

Atlanta University Board of Visi- 
tors, 192 

Avery Institute, Charleston, S. C, 
139, 160, 167, 180 

Avery, Rev. Charles, 45, 115, 116, 

Avery Station, Africa, 45 


Bacon, Leonard, D.D., 138, 223, 

Baldwin, Roger S., 29 

Ballard Normal, Macon, Ga., 141, 

Bangkok, Siam, 57, 59 

Barnes, Albert, 115 

Beard, A. F., D.D., 317 

Beecher, Edward, 19 

Bennett, Prof. H. S., 160 

Berea, Ky., 100, 104, 274 

Board of Peace Commissioners, 67 

Boynton, Nehemiah, D.D., 314 

Brainard, Hon. Lawrence, 130 

Bradley, Rev. D. B., 55, 60 

Brave Women, 232 

Brewer, Rev. Josiah, 39, 126, 313 

Brick, Joseph Keasbey Agricul- 
tural, Industrial and Normal 
School, 276 

Brick, Mrs. Julia A., 276 

Brisbane, W. H., 19 

Brooks, Mr. and Mrs. John S., 
42, 44 

Brownlow, Governor, 153 

Brown, Rev. William B., 314 

Bunyan, Thomas, 41 

Bureau of Women's Work, 237 

Butler, Gen., and School, 125 

Canada Mission, 61 

Cape Prince of Wales, 297, 304 

Carter, Anson J., 41 

Cass Lake Station, Minn., 66 

Caste and Anti-caste, 15, 97, 101, 

102, 229, 230, 239 
Castle Garden Meeting, no 
Caswell, Rev. Jesse, 55, 59 
Chase, Prof. F. A., 161 
Cheyenne River Agency, 77 
Chippewa Agency, Minn., 69 

3 2 9 


Christian Students, 201 
Churches, North and South, 12, 

17, 18, 21, 22, 138 
Church formation and work, 172, 

177, 243, 255 
Church of Spain, 306 
Clark, Rev. S. M., 68 
Collins, Miss Mary C, 71, 72, 77, 

78, 81 
Colored Pupil in Williamsburg, 

Color line in Churches, 228 
Commerce and Conservatism, 111 
Committee on Appropriation, 316 
Committee on Finance, 315 
Committee on Missions, 315 
Committee on Support, 315 
Concentration, 197, 245 
Condit, Rev. John, 44 
Conditions which created the 

A. M. A., 3 
Conflicting thought in South, 253, 

Connecticut, 13, 14, 15 
Cooper, J. W., D.D., 314, 317, 

3 2 4 
Copts in Egypt, 61 
Cornish, S. E., 313 
Cotton-gin, invention of, 9 
Crandall, Prudence, Canterbury, 

Conn., 13, 14 
Cravath, E. M., D.D., 151, 152, 

i5 8 > J 59 
Cross, Rev. Jas. F., 71, 77, 304 
Curry, J.L.M., LL.D., 285 


Dark Days, 107 

Day, Charles P., 125 

Death-rate in Africa, 41, 46, 47 

Deed of Trust, 257 

DeForest, H. S., D.D., 178, 214 

District of Columbia, 16 

District Secretaries appointed, 134 

Distrust and Prejudice, 107 

Division into Departments, 171 

Eells, Edwin, 68 
Emancipation Proclamation, 124 
Emerson Institute, Mobile, 179 
Emerson, Miss D. E., 237 
Emerson, Ralph, 179 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 20 
Enlargement, 138, 261 
Eskimos, 298 
Eskimos, Christians, 303 

Fairfax County Convention, 7 

Fajardo, 308 

Favorable Southern sentiment, 

220, 224 
Fee, Rev. John G., 97, 104 
Financial Experiences, 251 
First Assoc, chapel, South, 139 
Fisk, Gen. Clinton B., 150, 153, 

iS7» I 5 8 > 3i4 
Fisk University, 150, 156, 274 
Fluctuations of Southern sentiment, 

Foreign Missions, 34, 62 
Fort Berthold Agency, N. D., 69, 


Fortress Monroe and Ex-Pres. 
Tyler's house, 121 

Fort Sumter, 117 

Fort Yates Agency, 72 

Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amend- 
ments, 180, 188, 191, 192 

Franklin, Benjamin, 6 

Freedmen's Aid Society, M. E. 
Church, North, 281 

Freedmen as African Mission- 
aries, 47 

Freedmen's Bureau, 125, 170 

Free Negroes, 167, 168 

Friends of Bible Missions, 31, 

Fugitive Slave Law, no, m, 114, 

Fund, Daniel Hand, 324 



Garrison, William Lloyd, n, 12, 

17, 18 
Genius of Universal Emancipa- 
tion, n 
Gibbs, Professor, 27 
Glenn Bill, 225 
Good Hope, Africa, 43, 44 
Grand River Station, 71, 77 
Grand Traverse Bay, Mich., 66 
Grant, Pres. U. S., 67, 69, 188 
Great Britain, 134 
Green Bay Agency, Wis., 69 
Green, J. S., and wife, 51, 52 


Hall, Rev. C. L., 71 
Hamilton, Alexander, 8 
Hampton N. and A. Institute, 122, 

Hand, Daniel, 256, 258, 261, 323 
Hawaii, 295, 309 
Hawaiian Evangelical Association, 

Haygood, Rev. A. G., D.D., 221, 

Henry, Patrick, 8 
Hilton Head, 124 
Holbrook, J. C, D.D., 134, 171 
Holmes, Hon. Samuel, 314 
Holmes, Rev. John Milton, 314 
Home Department, West and 

South, 96, 104 
Horr, Elijah, D.D., 314 
Hostility in the South, 202 
Howard, Gen. Charles H., 73-77 
Howard, Gen. O. O., 125, 134, 

171- 3i4 
Hubbard, Henry W., 318 
Hull, Charles A., 314 
Humacao, 308 

Indian Mission Meeting (first), 74 
Indian Peace Policy, 67, 69 

Indian Work, 64, 93 
Industrial Training, 38, 163 
Infusion of white blood, 168 
"Irrepressible Conflict," 3, 99 


Jackson, Sheldon, D.D., 297, 300 
Jackson, William, 19, 31, 129 
Jamaica Mission, 30, 53, 55, 134 
Jay, Judge William, 19 
Jefferson, Thomas, 7, 9, 224 
Jocelyn, Simeon S., 27, 212, 213, 

3i3, 316 
Johnson, J. R., 313 
Jowett and Johnson, Mendi Miss., 

Jubilee Singers, 156, 157 
Just — " The just shall live by 

faith," 311 


Kaw-Mendi, 38, 41, 42, 44 
Ketchum, Edgar, 318 
Kinna (Amistad Captive), 42 
Kinson, Miss Sara (Mar-Gru), 42 
Kirk, E. N., D.D., 131, 133 
Ku Klux Klan, 202, 232 

Lake Superior Agency, Wis., 69 

Lares, 307 

Leavitt, Joshua, 16, 19, 211 

Le Moyne Institute, Memphis, 160 

Liberator, The, 12 

"Little Scotland," 127 

Lockwood, L. C, 121 

Lopp, Mr., 297, 302 

Ludlow, Miss Helen, 123 

Lundy, Benjamin, the Quaker, 11 

Lyman, A. J., D.D., 314 


Madison, James, 8 
Mann, Horace, 113 



Manual labor, 39, 41 

May, Samuel J., 16 

Mead, Charles L., 314 

Memphis, Tennessee Church, 139 

Mendi Mission, 30, 38, 48 

Miller, Kelly, 283 

Missionary Boards and Slavery, 

Missionary, The American, 319 
Mission Indians, Cal., 69 
Missouri and Maine, 10 
Missouri Compromise, 131 
Mob expulsion of Missionaries, 

Morris, Luzon B., 256 
Mo-Tappan, 43, 44 
Mountain Work, 238, 241 


National Council (1865), 133 
New England Colonies, 3, 4, 13 
New Fields and Old, 237 
North American Indians, 64, 93 
North and South, 3, 4, 5, 10, 

Northern Capital in Southern 

Mountains, 241 
Northern Philanthropy, 283 
Northwest Territory, 7 
Number of Missionary Workers, 



Oahe, S. D., 70, 71 

Ogden, Prof. John, 151 

Oglethorpe and Georgia, 5 

Organization, 31 

Organization of Churches, 199 

Ostracism, 169 

Our Brother in Black, 221, 224 

Park, W. E., D.D., 124 
Patton. C. A., 269 

Patton, W. W., D.D., 134, 171, 

Peace Policy (Gen. Grant), 67, 

Peake, Mrs. Mary, 121 
Pennington, J. W. C, 313 
Phelps, Amos A., 313 
Phillips, Wendell, 112 
Piedmont College, 276 
Pike, Rev. G. D., 245 
Pillow, William H., 313 
Point Barrow, 302 
Policy and Development, 145 
Porto Rico, 295, 305 
Powell, James, D.D., 246, 316 
Pratt, Lewellyn, D.D., 314 
Presbyterian Church, North, 281 
Protestant Episcopal Church, 281 

Ray, Charles B., 313 

Raymond, Rev. R., and wife, 38, 

40, 41 
Red Lake Station, Minn., 65 
Reed, George W., 72, 77 
Relief Societies, 170 
Richards, Chas. H., D.D., 264 
Richardson, Rev. W. T., 68 
Riggs, A. L., D.D., 70, 81 
Riggs, T. L., LL.D., 70, 73, 77, 

78, 81, 93 
Riggs, Stephen R., 74 
Riot in Memphis, 139 
Rogers, Rev. J. A. R., 101, 104 
Rosebud Agency, 71, 77 
Root, Barnabas, 45 
Roy, Joseph E., D.D., 319 
Ryder, C. J., D.D., 317 

Sandwich Islands Mission, 51, 

5 2 
Santee, Neb., 70, 71, 81 
Santurce, 307 
Savannah, Ga., 138 



Schools following the Armies, 

S( hurz, Carl, 190, 192 
Seven Years out of Slavery, 

Sherbro Island, Africa, 43 
Shipherd, Rev. J. R., 134, 316 
Siam Mission, 55, 60 
Sierra Leone, 39, 48 
Sims, Thomas, 111 
Sioux Reservation, 70, 71 
Sisseton Agency, Dak., 69 
"Sitting Bull," 77 
Skokomish Agency, Wash., 69 
Slater Fund, 221 
Slavery — introduction, decrease, 

abolition, 4, 6 
Smith, Gerrit, 19 
Smith, Rev. E. P., 68, 134, 205 
Social Study of the Negro Church, 

Society of Friends, 282 
Southern solution of Negro prob- 
lem, 203 
Spence, Prof. A. K., 160 
Spirit of the Association, 109 
"Spotted Bear," 74, 77 
Standing Rock Agency, 72, 77, 

State Normal Industrial College, 

N. C, 278 
Statement of Principles, 37, 109, 

146, 150, 155, 204, 226, 230 
Statistics, 188, 193, 231, 243, 

Stone, Mrs. Daniel, Gift of, 202 
Storrs, Richard Salter, D.D., 20 
Storrs' School, Atlanta, Ga., 141, 

Straight, Seymour, 182 
Straight University, 159, 181, 185, 

Strieby, M. E., D.D., 129, 229, 267, 

Suppression of Negro franchise, 

Survey and Outlook, 272 

Talladega College, Ala., 38, 159, 

172, 179, 274 
Tappan, Arthur, 11, 16, 19, 30, 32, 

i35» 138, 3*3, 3i8 
Tappan, Lewis, 11, 16, 31, 210, 

Theological Departments, 244 
Thompson, Rev. George, 41, 42, 

Thornton, Mr., 297, 301 
Thurston, Rev. David, 130 
Tillotson College, 275 
Tougaloo University, 160, 185, 

Transfer of African Missions, 48, 

Transfer of Indian Missions, 69 
Transfer of Jamaica Missions, 

Transitional Phases, 254 
Tremont Temple Meeting, 113 
Two Civilizations, 226 
Type of higher education, 162 


Union Commission, 170 
Union Missionary Society, 30 
United Brethren, 48 

Violence, 99, 100, 102 
Virginia Colonies, 3, 4 


Ward, William H., D.D., 314 
Ware, Rev. E. A., 246 
Warner, L. C, LL.D., 314 
Washington, George, 8 
Webster, Daniel, 111 
Weed, Edward, 313 
Welcome and Unwelcome, 217 
Western Evangelical Society, 32 



West Indian Missions, 30, 53, 55 
Whipple, George, D.D., 31, 37, 

113, 128, 207, 210, 268, 316 
White, Prof. Geo. L., 156 
Whiting, William E., 313 
Whittier, John G., 16, 19 
Williamsburg, Ky., 238 
Williams, Talcott, LL.D., 288 
Wilmington, N. C, 138, 160 
Winnepeg Lake, Minn., 66 

Women Teachers, Tribute to, 

Woodbury, Frank P., D.D., 317 
Woodworth, C. L., D.D., 134 
Wright, Elizur, 16 
Wright, Theodore S., 313 

"Yellow Hawk," 73, 77 


Pnncelon Theological Seminary-Speer 

1 1012 01095 8579 

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